The Pierpont Morgan Library, NY/Art Resource, NY

Graphic pictures. This 13th-century illustrated Old Testament portrays the battles of ancient Israel with all the violence of the Crusades. This folio depicts 2 Samuel 4:8–5:10: The murderers of Saul’s son and successor Ishbosheth present the youth’s head to David (upper left); disgusted, David orders their hands and feet cut off and then has the assassins hanged (upper right); Ishbosheth’s death nevertheless allows David to be anointed king of all Israel (lower left); he later leads the Israelites against Zion (Jerusalem), which surrenders to him.