Victoria & Albert Museum, London/Art Resource, NY

“Feed my sheep” is Jesus’ final instruction to Peter in the Gospel of John. In this painting by Raphael (1483–1520), the resurrected Jesus appears in the guise of the Good Shepherd with his flock. Peter kneels before him, while the other apostles gather round. Directly behind Peter is “the disciple whom Jesus loved.” In the Gospel of John, this beloved disciple, whose faith never falters, is a foil to Peter. Nevertheless, in John Jesus clearly singles out Peter as his successor.