ca. 2 million years ago PALEOLITHIC “Old Stone Age” (Pleistocene)
ca. 10,000 B.C. MESOLITHIC “Middle Stone Age” (Natufian)
ca. 8,000–4300 NEOLITHIC “New Stone Age”
8000 Pre-pottery
7000 (Tahunian)
6000 Pottery
ca. 4300–3200 CHALCOLITHIC “Copper Age”
4300 Early (Yarmukian)
3600 Late (Ghassulian)
ca. 3200–2050 EARLY BRONZE
3200 I A = Kenyon’s Proto-Urban A
I B = Kenyon’s Proto-Urban B
I C = Kenyon’s EB I
2850 II
2550 III
2300 IV = Intermediate Bronze I (Kenyon’s Intermediate EB)
ca. 2050–1550 MIDDLE BRONZE
2050 I = Intermediate Bronze II (Kenyon’s Intermediate MB)
1900 II A = Kenyon’s MB I
1750 II B
1650 II C
ca. 1550–1200 LATE BRONZE
1550 I
1400 II A
1300 II B
ca. 1200–918 IRON I
1200 A
1150 B
1000 C
ca. 918–587 IRON II
918 A
722 B
587–539 EXILIC
539–332 PERSIAN
539 Early
480 Late
332 Early (Ptolemaic)
198 Late (Seleucid)
167 (Hasmonean)
63 B.C.–324 A.D. ROMAN
63 Early
(Herodian 37–4 B.C.)
(Fall of Jerusalem 70 A.D.)
135 A.D. Late
(Second Jewish Revolt 135 A.D.)
324–630 A.D. BYZANTINE
324 Early (Constantine I 324–337)
491 Late (Justinian I 527–565)
630–1516 ARABIC/ISLAMIC (Muhammed 630)
1250 Mamluk
661 Umayyad
750 Abbasid
969 Fatimid (Crusades 1099–1291)
1174 Ayyubid
1918–1948 MANDATE
1948–present ISRAEL/JORDAN

The Relevance of Biblical Archaeology

“The relevance of what we do must be conceived of in general terms. We are seeking answers to ultimate questions: Who is man? What is man? Why is man? And what can man become? However dimly or clearly man has perceived these concerns in the past, human intellect over the centuries has groped for the answers to these ultimate concerns in generation after generation. The story of the search is written in the dusty remains which we excavate and in the written records which we decipher. It is our task to perceive the relationships between what we do and the ongoing quest for answers to these ultimate concerns.”

Keith N. Schoville, Department of Hebrew and Semitic Studies, University of Wisconsin, from “The Problem of Relevancy,” Newsletter of The American Schools of Oriental Research, July–August 1976.