Iron Age, 1200–586 B.C.E.

1200–680 B.C.E. Heraklid Dynasty; Sardis is an agricultural town
680–547 B.C.E.

Mermnad Dynasty

Sardis incorporated into Lydian Empire
Sardis center of worship of goddess Cybele

560–547 B.C.E.

Reign of King Croesus

Height of Lydian power and wealth
Cybele’s altar overlooks Croesus’ gold refinery

547 B.C.E.

Croesus attacks Persia

Earliest mention of Jews at Sardis (Obadiah 20)

Persian Period, 586–332 B.C.E.

547 B.C.E. Conquest of Sardis by Cyrus the Great
490 and 480 B.C.E. Sardis is staging area for invasions of Greece
334 B.C.E. Sardis surrenders to Alexander the Great

Hellenistic Period, 332–37 B.C.E.

323–190 B.C.E. Sardis governmental center for Seleucid Empire
300 B.C.E. Temple of Artemis begun
220 B.C.E. Governor of Sardis, Achaeus, revolts against King Antiochus III
214 B.C.E.

Sardis beseiged, captured and punished

Antiochus III settles 2,000 loyal Jewish families from Babylon in Asia Minor>

Roman Period, 37 B.C.E.–312 C.E.

17 C.E.

Sardis is rebuilt after disastrous earthquake

Construction begun on civil basilica
Christianity gains strength at Sardis (Revelation 20)

211/212 C.E.

Bath-gymnasium complex dedicated

Jewish community uses the civil basilica as a synagogue

Byzantine Period, 312–1453 C.E.

250–300 C.E.

Wars and plague in Anatolia

Defensive wall built at Sardis

350–400 C.E. Architectural renewal at Sardis
400 C.E. Byzantine shops built
540 C.E.

Persecution of pagans in Lydia

Sardis declines, but remains a provincial center

640 C.E. Sardis is destroyed and never rebuilt as a city