Tree Rings in America and Europe

Narrow rings indicate dry climate in northern hemisphere between 1300 and 1000 B.C.E. Very narrow tree rings in log from Gordion in Asia Minor, from about 1200 B.C.E., indicate severe drought.

Lakes and Glaciers in Europe

Lake levels recede, glaciers shrink, indicating warmer, drier period from 1400/1300–900 B.C.E.

Glaciers in Himalayan and Karakorum ranges

Glaciers retreated around 1200/1150 B.C.E.

Monsoon Rains in Indus Valley

Considerably below normal in 12th century.

Water Levels of Nile

Dropped considerably after 1300 B.C.E., reaching lowest levels from 1200 to 1100 B.C.E.

Water Levels of Tigris and Euphrates

Dropped rapidly after 1250 B.C.E., reaching lowest point from 1150–950 B.C.E.

Wood Charcoal from Sites North of the Negev

Indicates change from Mediterranean to Saharan vegetation.