Dates Events Major Finds
Level I 4th century B.C.E. Alexander the Great defeats Darius III;
Persian empire falls
Solar Shrine;
fortified city wall and gate;
6th century B.C.E. Persian empire established fortified city;
city wall and gate;
“Lachish Letters,”
Palace-fort in ruins
Level II Early 6th century B.C.E. Babylonians conquer southern kingdom of Judah (586 B.C.E.), Lachish destroyed;
Second half of 7th century B.C.E. Assyrian empire falls to Babylonians (612 B.C.E.)
Break in habitation from second half of 7th century B.C.E. to 701 B.C.E.
Level III 8th century B.C.E. Lachish destroyed (701 B.C.E.);
Assyrians conquer northern kingdom of Israel (722 B.C.E.)
Assyrian siege ramp;
Judean counter ramp;
fortified city with two walls; densely populated;
third Judean palace-fort
Level IV 9th century B.C.E. Kingdoms of Israel and Judah established;
rise of Assyrian Empire
second Judean palace-fort;
two city walls with gates
Level V 10th century B.C.E. Lachish settled by Israelites; Pharaoh Shishak invades Israel (c. 925 B.C.E.);
Lachish destroyed
first Judean palace-fort;
Break in habitation from 12th century B.C.E. to end of 11th century B.C.E.
Level VI 12th century B.C.E. Lachish destroyed by invading Israelites or “Sea Peoples” (second half of 12th century B.C.E.);
Egyptians control Canaan, including Lachish;
Reign of Pharaoh Ramesses III (c. 1182–1151 B.C.E.)
Acropolis Temple (Fose Temple abandoned);
monumental public building;
unfortified city;
Ramesses III cartouche
Level VII 2nd new:13th century B.C.E. Egyptians control Canaan Fosse Temple;
domestic area in unfortified city