Persian Period—586–332 B.C.E.

Late 6th cent. B.C.E.—Exiles begin returning from Babylonia, build the Baris fortress on northwest corner of Temple Mount

Hasmonean Period—152–37 B.C.E.

Aqueduct built, according to Josephus, in area of today’s Wilson’s Arch

The Baris rebuilt and strengthened

Addition to Temple Mount constructed on southern side

Roman Period—63 B.C.E.–324 C.E.

63 B.C.E.—Pompey conquers Jerusalem for Rome

20–4 B.C.E.—Herod doubles size of Temple Mount; rebuilds aqueduct supported by Wilson’s Arch; builds “Masonic Hall” west of Wilson’s Arch; builds four entrances to Temple Mount on west (Warren’s Gate, Barclay’s Gate and gates above Robinson’s Arch and Wilson’s Arch); builds Antonia Fortress as replacement for Baris

70 C.E.—Romans destroy Jerusalem and Temple

2nd cent. C.E.—Jerusalem rebuilt as pagan city, renamed Aelia Capitolina; Hadrian covers Struthion Pool with pavement

Byzantine Period—324–640 C.E.

Christian rulers make Church of the Holy Sepulchre religious focus of Jerusalem, leave Temple Mount a garbage heap

Umayyad Period—660–750 C.E.

Arabs build Dome of the Rock on Temple Mount; rebuild bridge over Wilson’s Arch, adding second, parallel bridge as support; rebuild parts of “Masonic Hall”

Medieval Period

1033 C.E.—Earthquake devastates Temple Mount area

11th cent. C.E.—Warren’s Gate and “The Cave” synagogue repaired

13th cent. C.E.—Crusaders build chapel on Umayyad reconstruction of bridge on Wilson’s Arch

1244 C.E.—Arabs expel Crusaders from Jerusalem, build eight gates to Temple Mount from west and erect religious buildings to emphasize Muslim character of Temple Mount

Modern Period

1860s—Charles Warren and Charles Wilson explore Jerusalem for Palestine Exploration Fund

1967—Israel regains Old City of Jerusalem in Six-Day War; ground level lowered 10 feet to expose more of Western Wall prayer area