Late 6th cent. B.C.E.—Exiles begin returning from Babylonia, build the Baris fortress on northwest corner of Temple Mount
Hasmonean Period—152–37 B.C.E.
Aqueduct built, according to Josephus, in area of today’s Wilson’s Arch
The Baris rebuilt and strengthened
Addition to Temple Mount constructed on southern side
Roman Period—63 B.C.E.–324 C.E.
63 B.C.E.—Pompey conquers Jerusalem for Rome
20–4 B.C.E.—Herod doubles size of Temple Mount; rebuilds aqueduct supported by Wilson’s Arch; builds “Masonic Hall” west of Wilson’s Arch; builds four entrances to Temple Mount on west (Warren’s Gate, Barclay’s Gate and gates above Robinson’s Arch and Wilson’s Arch); builds Antonia Fortress as replacement for Baris
70 C.E.—Romans destroy Jerusalem and Temple
2nd cent. C.E.—Jerusalem rebuilt as pagan city, renamed Aelia Capitolina; Hadrian covers Struthion Pool with pavement
Byzantine Period—324–640 C.E.
Christian rulers make Church of the Holy Sepulchre religious focus of Jerusalem, leave Temple Mount a garbage heap
Umayyad Period—660–750 C.E.
Arabs build Dome of the Rock on Temple Mount; rebuild bridge over Wilson’s Arch, adding second, parallel bridge as support; rebuild parts of “Masonic Hall”
1033 C.E.—Earthquake devastates Temple Mount area
11th cent. C.E.—Warren’s Gate and “The Cave” synagogue repaired
13th cent. C.E.—Crusaders build chapel on Umayyad reconstruction of bridge on Wilson’s Arch
1244 C.E.—Arabs expel Crusaders from Jerusalem, build eight gates to Temple Mount from west and erect religious buildings to emphasize Muslim character of Temple Mount
1860s—Charles Warren and Charles Wilson explore Jerusalem for Palestine Exploration Fund
1967—Israel regains Old City of Jerusalem in Six-Day War; ground level lowered 10 feet to expose more of Western Wall prayer area