A convenient and authoritative discussion of the Egyptian evidence may be found in A. Gardiner, Egypt of the Pharaohs (Oxford, 1961), p. 270 f. The Philistines themselves do not figure in the invasion of Egypt in the time of Merneptah, but make their appearance in Egypt in the time of Ramesses III (1182–1151), in his eighth regnal year (1174), as invaders from Asia (Palestine) where they were already settled. For discussion, see Gardiner, p. 283 f.


Jack Finegan, Let My People Go: A Journey through Exodus (New York, 1963), p. 87. The author discusses in authoritative manner the many theories of the Exodus in this excellent popular book.


Frank Moore Cross, Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic: Essays in the History and Religion of Israel (Cambridge, Mass., 1973), pp. 131–32. My understanding of Exodus 15 is similar to that of Cross but for my view that lines 16b–17, which speak of the Conquest, are couched in the future tense.


A. Erman and H. Grapow, Wörterbuch der aegyptischen Sprache (Berlin, 1957), Vol. V, p. 200. Goshen is commonly thought to have been the Wadi Tumilat in the northeast of Egypt, but the name Goshen has never been satisfactorily identified with any like known Egyptian place name. For discussion, see Finegan, op. cit., p. 6 f. The dominant Exodus tradition in the Bible holds that the Israelites left Egypt from the region of Tanis-Ramesses, the northern capital, and proceeded thence into the Sinai. This tradition, which is later than that in Exodus 15, was not (I believe) originally associated with the Red Sea but only later combined with it, as we see in the contamination in Exodus 13–14.


A translation of the tale in its entirety may be found in the second volume, pp. 211–15, of Miriam Lichtheim’s Ancient Egyptian Literature (Berkeley, 1973).