Susan Ackerman, Warrior, Dancer, Seductress, Queen (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1998), p. 70; Leila Leah Bronner, “Valorized or Vilified? The Women of Judges in Midrashic Sources,” in Athalya Brenner, ed. A Feminist Companion to Judges (Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Academic Press, 1993), p. 91; Robert G. Bolling, Judges: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, Anchor Bible Series (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1975), p. 182. Authors who, like Bolling, suggest that she “drops” a millstone on Abimelech’s head include Lillian R. Klein, “A Spectrum of Female Characters,” in Feminist Companion to Judges, p. 32; William E. Phipps, Assertive Biblical Women, Contributions in Women’s Studies No. 128 (Westport, CN: Greenwood Press, 1992), p. 44; and C.G. Rasmussen, “Mill, Millstone,” International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, revised ed. (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1986).
J. Gerald Janzen points out the irony of a solitary woman throwing the millstone: “One who would rule Shechem single-handedly as its head (v. 37), and who to that end killed seventy brothers upon (‘al) a single stone, in the end is killed by a single woman who drops [sic] a mill-stone upon (‘al) his head.” “A Certain Woman in the Rhetoric of Judges 9, ” Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 38 (1987), p. 35.
See George F. Moore, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Judges, International Critical Commentary (Edinburgh: T. and T. Clark, 1895), p. 268; and Mieke Bal, Death and Dissymmetry: The Politics of Coherence in the Book of Judges (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1988), pp. 220–221.
Karel van der Toorn, “Mill, Millstone,” Anchor Bible Dictionary (New York: Doubleday, 1992); Rasmussen, “Mill, Millstone.”