1. See Lawrence Mykytiuk, “Archaeology Confirms 50 Real People in the Bible,BAR, 40:02. For extensive endnotes that are freely available and exclusively online, see Lawrence Mykytiuk, “50 People in the Bible Confirmed Archaeologically,” Bible History Daily (blog), originally published March 3, 2014,

2. “Queries & Comments,BAR, 40:04.

3. See Laurie E. Pearce, “How Bad Was the Babylonian Exile?BAR, 42:05.


1. Circular logic would involve such things as using Biblical material to interpret an inscription, then claiming that the inscription confirms the Bible. In order to avoid this hazard, inscriptions must first be interpreted independently of the Bible and then compared with it. Also, in this article, the following multivolume reference book provided the background for inscriptions that are discussed with reference to six people mentioned in 1 Chronicles 24 (Hezir, Jakim and Ma‘aziahu: reasonably identified; plus Eliashib, Jeshebeab and David: not identified): Hanna M. Cotton, et al., eds., Corpus Inscriptionum Iudaeae/Palaestinae, vol. 1: Jerusalem, Part 1: 1–704 (Berlin and Boston: De Gruyter, 2010).

2. Ada Yardeni and Jonathan J. Price, “Hebrew Epitaph of Ovadiya, 1 c. B.C.E.,” in Cotton, et al., eds., CIIP, vol. 1, p. 182, no. 138.

3. A future BAR article will consider whether this Qayafa is Caiaphas, a high priest in the New Testament.