Footnotes

1.

Schliemann’s assistant, Wilhelm Dörpfeld, a German architect, identified Troy’s nine basic strata—a scheme archaeologists continue to follow today. He completed his excavations in 1894. From 1932 to 1938, Carl Blegen, sponsored by the University of Cincinnati, used highly refined excavation methods to differentiate 46 separate construction phases (or sub-strata) at Troy. Blegen’s most famous finds were a large palace from Troy VI (the so-called Pillar House) and a Greek-Roman sanctuary. The current excavations, begun in 1988, are directed by Manfred Korfmann of Tübingen University.

2.

Luwian-speaking peoples came into Anatolia in the third millennium B.C., about the same time as the Hittites. They settled mainly in the south and west and founded several kingdoms—the most important being Kizzuwatna in the southeast (roughly equivalent to Cilicia in later years) and Arzawa in the west (the region surrounding Ephesus). The Luwians were at different times allies, rivals and vassals of the Hittites. Since their languages were about as closely related as modern Dutch and German, there was a good deal of cultural exchange between the two peoples, especially between Kizzuwatna and Hatti (as the Hittites called their territory in central Anatolia).