Gerhard Lohfink, Die Sammlung Israels. Eine Untersuchung zur lukanischen Ekklesiologie (Munich, Ger.: Kösel, 1975), p. 55.


See my The Jews in Luke-Acts (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1987), p. 73; also Walter Radl, Paulus und Jesus im lukanischen Doppelwerk (Bern, Switz.: Herbert Lang; Frankfurt, Ger.: Peter Lang, 1975), pp. 236–237.


The Ethiopian eunuch is a proselyte, as can be inferred primarily from Isaiah 56:4–6. See my The Jews in Luke-Acts, pp. 151–153, and the other literature referred to there.


For the variations, see again my The Jews in Luke-Acts, pp. 75–76.


Ernst Haenchen (“Judentum und Christentum in der Apostelgeschichte,” Zeitschrift fur die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 54 [1963], p. 175) refers to the synagogue scenes of Paul’s ministry in Acts as being done in “placard style.”


When Jews are “persuaded” in Acts, they are not necessarily converted; see esp. the conclusion of Paul’s first sermon in the synagogue at Antioch of Pisidia, Acts 13:43.


See the additional arguments in this regard in E.P. Sanders, Jesus and Judaism (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1985), pp. 284–287.


It is not clear that Paul knows more than one James. In Galatians 1:19 he mentions “James the Lord’s brother,” and otherwise he refers only to James. One would thus not know from Paul that there were two Jameses, as in Acts.


I here follow the argument of E.P. Sanders, Paul, the Law, and the Jewish People (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1983), pp. 190–192.


On the issue of Jewish persecution in Matthew, one should note especially Douglas R.A. Hare, The Theme of Jewish Persecution of Christians in the Gospel According to St. Matthew (Cambridge, UK: University Press, 1967). The translation of dioko as “harry” is Hare’s, a translation that I regard as particularly apt.


Matthew otherwise refers in a number of places to the killing of Christians, but these references are generally too vague to allow us to draw any conclusions about the persecutors or the places of persecution. In the parable of the Royal Banquet, Matthew 22:3–6, however, we may well have a reference to the killing of, first, Israelite prophets and, second, Christian missionaries, since these are the likely identities of the groups of servants sent in the parable to the invited guests. Matthew therefore attests the same kind of persecution that Paul attests, with possible occasional killing added. John also once mentions the killing of Christians (John. 16:2), but the future orientation and the subjunctive mood of his statement make me much more skeptical than some about whether John actually knows of killings that have occurred.


See the statistical evidence in my The Jews in Luke-Acts, pp. 71–72.


The most significant secondary literature would seem to be John Knox, Chapters in a Life of Paul (Nashville, TN: Abingdon, 1950); Philipp Vielhauer, “On the ‘Paulinism’ in Acts,” in Studies in Luke-Acts, ed. L.E. Keck and J.L. Martyn (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1980), pp. 33–50; and Gerd Ludemann, Paulus der Heidenapostel, 2 vols. (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1980–83), Vol. 1 has appeared in English as Gerd Luedemann, Paul, Apostle to the Gentiles, Studies in Chronology (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1984).


I discussed this aspect of Paul’s polemic some years ago in “Paul’s ‘Autobiographical’ Statements in Galatians 1–2, ” Journal of Biblical Literature (JBL) 85 (1966), pp. 335–343. There are, of course, also problems with trying to reconcile the chronology of Paul’s life given in Acts with Paul’s own statements, but that issue does not concern us here. Furthermore, Paul never mentions God-fearers or God-worshipers, those gentiles who, in Acts, attend synagogues but do not convert to Judaism, and who often are the gentiles who become Christians.


A good argument can be made that 1 Thessalonians 2:14–16 are a later addition to Paul’s letter; see Birger Pearson, “1 Thessalonians 2:13–16: A Deutero-Pauline Interpolation,” Harvard Theological Review 64 (1971), pp. 79–94. Some scholars have agreed with Pearson, but some have disagreed, and the issue remains unsettled.


Alfred Loisy, Les Actes des Apotres (Paris: Nourry, 1920), p. 787.


See William R. Schoedel, Ignatius of Antioch (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1985), p. 202.


See esp. J. Louis Martyn, History and Theology in the Fourth Gospel (Nashville, TN: Abingdon, 2nd ed. 1979); Raymond E. Brown, The Community of the Beloved Disciple (New York: Ramsey; Toronto: Paulist, 1979). See also Brown, “Johannine Ecclesiology—The Community’s Origins,” Interpretation 31 (1977), pp. 379–393, and “Other Sheep Not of This Fold: The Johannine Perspective on Christian Diversity in the Late First Century,” JBL 97 (1978), pp. 5–22; Martyn, The Gospel of John in Christian History (New York, Ramsey; Toronto: Paulist, 1978); Wayne E. Meeks, The Prophet-King; Moses Traditions and the Johannine Christology (Leiden, Neth.: Brill, 1967), and “Am I a Jew?’ Johannine Christianity and Judaism,” in Christianity, Judaism and Other Greco-Roman Cults. Studies for Morton Smith at Sixty, ed. Jacob Neusner (Leiden, Neth.: Brill, 1975), vol. 1, pp. 163–186; and Klaus Wengst, Bedrangte Gemeinde und verherrlichter Christus (Neukirchen-Vluyn, Ger.: Neukirchener Verlag, 2nd ed., 1983).