There is some dispute about the date of the Exodus from Egypt, and stories of Exodus 1–15 may well include traditions and reminiscences from several distinct departures by groups that later combined to form Israelite people.


Exodus 19–24, 32–34 (largely early material adopted by various subsequent narrative sources and given a new framework by the book’s later Priestly editors).


This analysis depends on the initial insights of Viktor Korosec (Hethitische Staatsverträge [Leipzig, 1931], George Mendenhall (Biblical Archaeology 17 [1954], pp. 49–76) and Klaus Baltzer (Das Bundesformular [Neukirchen Vluyn, 1960; rev ed., 1964]), The Covenant Formulary, trans. David E. Green [Philadelphia: Fortress, 1971]), as developed and refined by numerous scholars. While questions have been raised about the validity of this approach or its implications for the covenant of Moses (cf. Dennis McCarthy, Treaty and Convenant (Rome, 1963; rev ed., 1978]), it remains widely accepted.


For example, “These are the words of the Sun Mursilis, the great king, king of the Hatti land, the valiant, the favorite of the Storm-god, the son Suppiluliumas … When your father died, in accordance with your father’s word I did not drop you. Since your father had mentioned to me your name with great praise, I sought after you To be sure, you were sick and ailing, but although you were ailing, I, the Sun put you in the place of your father and took your brothers (and) sisters and the Amurru land in oath for you.” James B. Pritchard, ed., Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament, 2nd ed. (Princeton, 1955), pp. 203–204; the Hittite treaties are translated by Albrecht Goetze; italics in the original.


For example, “When I, the Sun, sought after you in accordance with your father’s word and put you in your father’s place, I took you in oath for the king of the Hatti land, the Hatti land, and for my sons and grandsons. So honor the oath (of loyalty) to the king and the king’s kin!… The tribute which was imposed upon your grandfather and your father—they presented 300 shekels of good, refined first-class gold weighed with standard weights you shall present them likewise. Do not turn your eyes to anyone else! Your fathers presented tribute to Egypt; you [shall not do that!].” (There follows an extended list of obligations and prohibitions.) Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts, p. 204; italics in the original.


For example, “The words of the treaty and the oath that are inscribed on this tablet—should Duppi-Tessub not honor these words of the treaty and the oath, may these gods of the oath destroy Duppi-Tessub, together withhis person, his wife, his son, his grandson, his house, his land and together with everything that he owns

“But if Duppi-Tessub honors these words of the treaty and the oath that are inscribed on this tablet— may these gods of the oath protect him together with his person, his wife, his son, his grandson, his house (and) his country.” Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts, p. 205. Sometimes extended lists of curses and blessings are included in the treaty; cf. Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts, p. 206.


Cf. Exodus 20:1–17, 23:20–33. 24:1–11 or Deuteronomy 5:1–21, 27:1–28:24 (and passim). The early covenant pattern shines through here, even though it has been reworked by later writers to reflect subsequent concerns and emphases


Cf. Albrecht Alt, Der Gott der Väter, Beiträge zur Wissenschaft vom Alten und Neuen Testament III/12 (Stuttgart, 1929); The God of the Fathers in Alt, Essays on Old Testament History and Religion, trans. R. A Wilson (Garden City, N. Y., 1967), pp 1–100. Cf. also Frank Moore Cross, Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic: Essays in the History of the Religion of Israel (Cambridge, Mass., 1973), pp. 3–12


Cf. for example, Joshua 24:2–13; Deuteronomy 26:5–11.


Cf. Judges 21:25; 1 Samuel 8:4–22, 12:6–13.


Cf. R. D Barnett, “The Sea Peoples,” in The Cambridge Ancient History (CAH), 3d ed., Vol. II, part II, History of the Middle East and the Aegean Region c 1380–1000 B.C., ed., I. E. S. Edwards et al. (Cambridge, Eng., 1975), pp. 359–378. Cf. also William F. Albright, “Syria, the Philistines, and Phoenicia, I. The Sea Peoples in Palestine,” CAH, History of the Middle East, pp. 507–516.


It took another seven and a half years before David was able to consolidate his rule over Israel in the north (cf. 2 Samuel 2:8–5:5)


This was only possible because of a temporary power vacuum in the Near East generally, but it still remains a mighty achievement


Cf. 2 Samuel 8:15–18, 20:23–26 for lists of David’s cabinet officers.


Cf. Judges 17:6, 18:1, 19:1, 21:25.


Cf. 1 Samuel 4:3–8, 21–22, 5:1–7:2; 2 Samuel 6:1–15, 21.


Cf. Judges 2:16, 18, 3:9, 15 and passim.


Joshua 24:1–28; Exodus 19:3–9, 20:2–3; Deuteronomy 5:6–7.


Cf. especially the “royal psalms” Psalms 2, 18, 20, 21, 45, 72, 89, 101, 110, 132.


Most Pentateuchal sources came from Jerusalem circles, although the fragmentary Elohist materials in Genesis and Exodus probably had a northern origin, and the authors of Deuteronomy may have drawn heavily upon traditions brought back from the north by refugees from the destruction of Samaria. The Deuteronomistic History (Joshua, Judges, 1 and 2 Samuel, 1 and 2 Kings) and the Chronicler’s History(1 and 2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah) are both also from Jerusalem circles. Other considerations tempered the perspectives of the royal Davidic theology in each of these witnesses, however.


Cf. 1 Kings 4:1–34 (Hebrews 4:1–5:14), Hebrews 7:1–8, Hebrews 10:1–11:8.


1 Kings 5:1–6:38 (Hebrew 5:15–6:38), 7:15–8:13; cf. 2 Samuel 7:1–7.


1 Kings 9:22, 10:14–15; cf. 12:4, 14.


Cf. 1 Kings 13 through 2 Kings 18:12 (passim)


Cf. Exodus 32; 1 Kings 12:26 and passim


Cf. 2 Kings 18:1–8 and 2 Chronicles 29:3–31:21 for Hezekiah’s reforms; 2 Kings 22:3–23:25 for Josiah’s


Cf., for example, Deuteronomy 4:1–40, 6:1–9:24 and passim


Cf., for example, Judges 2:11–3:11; 2 Kings 17:7–18, 18:1–8, 21:10–15 and passim


Cf. 2 King 17:19, 18:5–6, 23:4–14, 21–25.


2 Kings 21:1–16, 22:15–20, 23:26–27, 24:3–4.


While Ezekiel’s authorship of chapters 40–48 is disputed, the present discussion can prescind from the question.


Cf., for example, Isaiah 40:1–11, 43:1–7, 16–21.


If Nehemiah did not initiate the request for Ezra’s trip, he certainly cooperated with him


Cf. Ezra 7:6, 10, 21, 25–26


Cf. Nehemiah 10:32–39 (Hebrew 10:33–40)


Nehemiah 10:29 (Hebrew 10:30); cf. Nehemiah 9–10.