Manfred Bietak, Proc Brit.-Ac. LXV (1979) pp. 232–238; American Journal of Archaeology 88 (1984) pp. 474–482; XXXIVème Rencontre Assyrologique Internationale 6–10 July 1987, Istanbul, Turkey (in print).


Manfred Bietak, Anzeiger Phil-hist.Kl. Österr. Akademie d. Wissenschaften 122 (1985) pp. 267–278, fig. 12.


Eliezer D. Oren, Op. Ath. IX (1969) pp. 127–150.


There is a rare consensus now among experts (M. L. Bierbrier, W. Helck, E. Hornung, Kenneth A. Kitchen and R. Krauss) to apply for the New Kingdom an ultra-low chronology, starting in the 18th Dynasty with 1540 or 1530 B.C. (W. Helck) and the reign of Ramesses II with 1279 B.C. (see the latest contributions in “High, Middle or Low,” in Acts of an International Colloquium on Absolute Chronology, P. Aström, ed. (Gothenburg, Sweden: 1987), pp. 18–55). The calculations are based on a dense network of data and coregencies, going backwards from safe fixed points as 690 B.C. (beginning of reign of Taharqa). The differences in the calculations are minor (e.g., length of reign of Haremheb). The Sothis date in the Pap. Ebers from the ninth year of Amenhotep I (low 1516 B.C., ultra-low 1505 B.C.) became highly doubtful and should not be used anymore in the chronological considerations. These findings are important for reconstructing the Middle Kingdom chronology, which has to be attempted anew.


That is, carriers of the Hyksos rule.