Ronny Reich and Eli Shukron, “The Light at the End of the Tunnel,” BAR, January/February 1999.


See Aharon Kempinski, “Jacob in History,” BAR, January/February 1988.



See Jeffrey R. Chadwick, “The Archaeology of Biblical Hebron in the Bronze and Iron Ages: An Examination of the Discoveries of the American Expedition to Hebron” (University of Utah Middle East Center, 1992). Professor Hammond kindly shared with me all the available documents from his excavation, including his field notes, pottery notes, and stratigraphic notes and charts. The author expresses gratitude for Professor Hammond’s continued willingness to share information regarding his excavation at Hebron.


Avi Ofer was unaware of the Early Bronze Age wall and gateway Hammond excavated because they were unpublished and had been reburied in the 1970s. Ofer interpreted the small segment he found as a straight continuation of the Middle Bronze Age II wall running east from Hammond’s tower. But the location and alignment of the segment also fits into the proposed plan of an eastern gate tower. The author expresses gratitude to Ofer for sharing information about his excavation during the 1980s prior to its publication.


Avi Ofer, “Hebron,” New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land, vol. 2, pp. 607–608. Also see Moshe Anbar and Nadav Na’aman, “An Account Tablet of Sheep from Ancient Hebron,” Tel Aviv 13–14, pp. 3–12, and Moshe Anbar, “A Cuneiform Tablet from the 17th-16th Centuries B.C.E. Discovered at Hebron” (Hebrew) Qadmoniot 22, no. 3–4, 1989, pp. 94–95.


Ofer, “Hebron.”


Ofer, “Tell Rumeideh (Hebron)—1986,” Excavations and Surveys in Israel 1987/88, p. 92.


Continuing research on the Late Bronze Age at Hebron and the American expedition to Hebron (AEH) finds that relate to that period was conducted by the author during his 2003–2004 appointment as senior research fellow at Jerusalem’s William F. Albright Institute for Archaeological Research. The Late Bronze Age finds were presented publicly in his scholarly presentation at the annual meeting of the American Schools of Oriental Research (ASOR) in Atlanta, Georgia, in November 2003. That material is also currently being prepared for scientific publication.


This scarab, designated in Hammond’s registry as AEH 66 No. 859, was drawn and photographed in 1966 but not read or otherwise identified by the expedition. It was first read and identified as a scarab of Ramesses II by the author in 1988, during examination of AEH finds in preparation for the writing of his Ph.D. dissertation, “The Archaeology of Biblical Hebron.”


Yuval Peleg and Irina Eisenstadt, “A Late Bronze Tomb at Hebron (Tell Rumeideh),” in Hananya Himzi and Alon DeGroot, eds., Burial Caves and Sites in Judea and Samaria From the Bronze and Iron Ages (Jerusalem: Staff Officer of Archaeology—Civil Administration of Judea and Samaria/Israel Antiquities Authority, 2004), pp. 231–259.


New research on AEH finds from Iron Age I at Hebron was initiated by the author during the 2003–2004 appointment at the Albright Institute in Jerusalem and is tentatively scheduled to be delivered at the ASOR annual meeting in Philadelphia in November 2005. The author expresses thanks to the Albright Institute and its director Seymour Gitin, and additionally to the Brigham Young University (BYU) Jerusalem Center for Near Eastern Studies and the BYU Religious Studies Center for material support of the ongoing AEH Review and its related research.


Emanuel Eisenberg and Alla Nagorski, “Tel Hevron,” Hadashot 114, p. 92. The author expresses gratitude to Eisenberg for valuable advice and for sharing additional information about his finds at Hebron in advance of their publication.


Ofer, “Hebron.” p. 609. Eisenberg and Alla Nagorski, “Tel Hevron,” Hadashot 114, p. 92.