See Birgit Brandau, “Can Archaeology Discover Homer’s Troy?” AO 01:01.



Emanuela Guidoboni, Catalogue of Ancient Earthquakes in the Mediterranean Area up to the 10th Century (Rome: Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica, 1994), p. 504.


Nicholas N. Ambraseys, “Some Characteristic Features of the Anatolian Fault Zone,” Tectonophysics 9 (1970), p. 147.


Vit Karnik, Seismicity of the European Area (Praha: Academia Press, 1968).


Claude F.A. Schaeffer, Stratigraphie comparée et chronologie de l’Asie Occidentale (London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1948); Schaeffer, “Commentaires sur les lettres et documents trouvés dans les bibliothèques privées d’Ugarit,” Ugaritica V (Mission de Ras Shamra 16) (Paris: Geuthner, 1968), pp. 753–768; Ambraseys, “Value of Historical Records of Earthquakes,” Nature 232 (1971), pp. 375–379.


Iaakov Karcz and Uri Kafri, “Evaluation of Supposed Archaeoseismic Damage in Israel,” Journal of Archaeological Science 5 (1978), pp. 237–253; Amos Nur and Haggai Ron, “Earthquake! Inspiration for Armageddon,” BAR 04:05.


See Kurt Bittel, “Die archäologische Situation in Kleinasien um 1200 v. Chr. und während der nachfolgenden vier Jahrhunderte,” in Sigrid Deger-Jalkotzy, ed., Griechenland, die Ägäis und die Levante während der “Dark Ages” (Vienna: Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaft, 1983), ill. 2.


George Mylonas, “Excavations at Mycenae,” in Praktika Archaeologikis Etaireias (1972), p. 122.


Mylonas, “Excavations at Mycenae,” in Praktika Archaeologikis Etaireias (1970), pp. 122–124; “Excavations at Mycenae,” in Praktika Archaeologikis Etaireias (1971), pp. 148–151.


Mylonas, “Excavations at Mycenae,” in Praktika Archaeologikis Etaireias (1962), p. 66; “Excavations at Mycenae,” Praktika Archaeologikis Etaireias (1963), p. 106; Ione Mylonas-Shear, Mycenaean Domestic Architecture (Ann Arbor: University Microfilms International, 1969), pp. 19–20.


Mylonas, Mycenae and the Mycenaean Age (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1966), p. 221.


Klaus Kilian, “Zum ende der Mykenischen epoche in der Argolis,” in Jahrbuch des Römisch-Germanischen Zentral-Museums Mainz 27 (1980), pp. 166–195; “Mycenaeans Up To Date: Trends and Changes in Recent Research,” in Elizabeth B. French and Ken A. Wardle, eds., Problems in Greek Prehistory, Papers Presented at the Centenary Conference of the British School of Archaeology at Athens, Manchester, April 1986 (Bristol: Bristol Classical Press, 1988), pp. 115–152.


Paul Âström and Katie Demakopoulou, “Signs of an Earthquake at Midea?” in Stathis Stiros and Richard E. Jones, eds., Archaeoseismology (Athens: Fitch Laboratory Occasional Paper No. 7, 1996), pp. 37, 39.


Carl W. Blegen, John L. Caskey and Marion Rawson, Troy III: The Sixth Settlement (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1953), p. 331; cf. Michael Wood, In Search of the Trojan War (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1996), p. 229.


George Rapp, Jr., “Earthquakes in the Troad,” in Rapp and John A. Gifford, eds., Troy: The Archaeological Geology (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1982), p. 58.


Gordon Loud, Megiddo II: Season of 1935–39 (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1948), p. 29, figs. 70–71.


Pirhiya Beck and Moshe Kochavi, “Aphek,” in Ephraim Stern, Ayelet Lewinson-Gilboa and Joseph Aviram, eds., The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land (Jerusalem: The Israel Exploration Society, 1993), p. 68.


Carl Blegen, Cedric G. Boulter, John L. Caskey and Marion Rawson, Troy IV, Settlements VIIa, VIIb and VIII (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1958), pp. 11–12.


Robert Drews, The End of the Bronze Age: Changes in Warfare and the Catastrophe ca. 1200 B.C. (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1993), p. 39.


Amos Nur and Eric H. Cline, “Poseidon’s Horses: Plate Tectonics and Earthquake Storms in the Late Bronze Age Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean,” Journal of Archaeological Science 27 (2000), pp. 43–63.


Drews, End of the Bronze Age, p. 39.


Adapted from Terramoto de 1755: Testemunhos Britanicos, The British Historical Society of Lisbon (Lisbon: Lisoptima Edicoes, 1990).


See also Klaus Kilian, “Earthquakes and Archaeological Context at 13th Century BC Tiryns,” in Stiros and Jones, Archaeoseismology, p. 65.


Colin A. Renfrew, “Questions of Minoan and Mycenaean Cult,” in Robin Hägg and Nanno Marinatos, eds., Sanctuaries and Cults in the Aegean Bronze Age (Stockholm: Paul Âström Förlag, 1981), pp. 29–30.