Robert B. Coote, Early Israel: A New Horizon (Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress Press, 1990), p. 141.


Thomas L. Thompson, The Origin Tradition of Ancient Israel (Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Press, 1987), p. 41.


Arnaldo Momigliano, “Biblical Studies and Classical Studies: Simple Reflections about Historical Method,” Biblical Archaeologist 45 (1982), p. 224.


Gösta Ahlström, The History of Ancient Palestine (Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Press, 1993), p. 45.


Ahlström, Ancient Palestine, p. 416.


William G. Dever, “Israel, History (of Archaeology and the ‘Conquest’)” in Anchor Bible Dictionary (New York: Doubleday, 1992), III, pp. 547–548.


J. Simons, Handbook for the Study of Egyptian Topographical Lists Relating to Western Asia (Leiden: 1937), pp. 111–115, List I, numbers 95, pp. 98–100. An interpretation of this part of the list that is very different from my own is offered by the Canadian Egyptologist Donald B. Redford, in his study “A Bronze Age Itinerary in Transjordan (Nos. 89–101 of Thutmose III’s List of Asiatic Toponyms),” Journal of the Society of Egyptian Archaeology (1982), pp. 55–74. Redford believes the list runs in north-south direction; his results are therefore understandably radically different from my own. In one point I concur with him completely: Dibon is mentioned in the list.


E. Edel, Die Ortsnamentalisten aus dem Totentempels Amenophis III (Bonn: 1966), List Bn, nos. 11–13.


Simons, Handbook, pp. 157–159, List XXIII, nos. 16–19.


Ramesses II’s expedition against Moab was the subject of an important study by the British Egyptologist Kenneth A. Kitchen entitled “Some New Light on the Asiatic Wars of Ramesses II,” Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 50 (1964), pp. 47–70. Kitchen’s identification of the name Dibon in the Ramessid text at Luxor has been repeatedly challenged on the grounds (a) that the material reading is not clear, (b) that the geographical context of the name as the Transjordan is uncertain and (c) that the archaeology of the site of ancient Dibon shows no evidence of occupation in the time of Ramesses II. The Ramesses II map of the road from Arabah to the Plains of Moab, however, supports Kitchen completely.


Ahlström, Ancient Palestine, p. 356.


Amihai Mazar, Archaeology of the Land of the Bible 10,000–586 B.C.E. (New York: Doubleday, 1992), p. 239.


Israel Finkelstein, The Archaeology of the Israelite Settlement (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1988), p. 239.


William H. Stiebing, Jr., Out of the Desert: Archaeology and the Exodus/Conquest Narratives (Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1989), p. 92.


Simons, Handbook, pp. 164–169, List XXVII. The name Hebron is spelled without final -n in the Egyptian according to a common convention in the transliteration of Semitic place-names in Egyptian. DRBN could be a simple misspelling of Dibon, a city in Judah mentioned with Hebron in Nehemiah 11:25. Spelling errors of this kind (a false r) are common in the Medinet Habu topographical list of Ramesses III.


Simons, Handbook, p. 174, List XXIX, nos. 10–13. The name Rehob is misread in Simons; the correct reading is found in K. A. Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1979), II, 260, 15, nos. 10–13.


N. P. Lemche, “Israel, History of (Premonarchic Period)” in Anchor Bible Dictionary, III, p. 534.


G.F. Moore, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Judges (New York: 1901), p. 109.


The name Qishon is written with a final-r; this is a known spelling convention in the transliteration of Semitic names in Egyptian. For example, the name Beth-shan is always written in Egyptian with final -r, as is also the city-name Gitt-ashn(a) in the time of Ramesses II.


Judges 4:2 associates Jabin with Hazor, rather than with Kishon: At the beginning of the story, the Israelites have been oppressed by “Jabin, king of Canaan, who reigned in Hazor.” This is doubtless a mistaken association introduced by the final editor of the passage, as indicated by the fact that Baraq, Deborah’s general, went to Qedesh (Judges 4:9, 10) rather than to Hazor to meet Jabin’s general Sisera. Qedesh is another name for Qishon, as is clear from the parallel lists of priestly cities in Issachar in 1 Chronicles 6:57–58 = Joshua 21:28–29: the former calls the city Qedesh, the latter calls it Qishion (that is, Qishon). The story in Judges 4 is of an Israelite military campaign against Qedesh/Qishon: “Deborah went with Baraq against Qedesh” (verse 9); “Baraq called out Zebulun and Naphtali against Qedesh” (verse 10). The possible reason why Jabin of Qedesh/Qishon is called “the king of Hazor” in the story may be because he was confused with an earlier (Middle Bronze Age) king of Hazor named Yabni-Hadda; on the latter, see Abraham Malamat, Mari and the Early Israelite Experience, Schweich Lectures (Oxford: British Academy, 1989), p. 58.


Wayne Horowitz and Aaron Shaffer, “A Fragment of a Letter from Hazor,” Israel Exploration Journal 42, pp. 165–167.


Yohanan Aharoni doubted the existence of Harosheth: “It appears likely that Harosheth-ha-goiim is not a place name at all but refers rather to the forested regions of Galilee … ” See also Aharoni and Michael Avi-Yonah, The Macmillan Bible Atlas, eds. Anson F. Rainey and Z. Safrai. (New York: Macmillan, 3rd ed., 1993), p. 54: “There is no city by the name of Harosheth-hagoiim in any extra-biblical source … Harosheth means ‘cultivated land’ and refers to the rich farm area on the southern side of the Jezreel Valley.”