B.C.E. (Before the Common Era) and C.E. (Common Era), used by this author, are the alternate designations corresponding to B.C.E. and A.D. often used in scholarly literature.



G.H.R. Horsley, New Documents Illustrating Early Christianity, 5 vols. (New South Wales, Aust.: Macquarie Univ., 1981–1989).


Martin Hengel, Judaism and Hellenism (London: SCM, 1974); Hellenization of Judaea in the First Century After Christ (London: SCM, 1990).


Jean-Baptiste Frey, Corpus Inscriptionum Judaicarum (CIJ), 2 vols. (Rome: Pontificio Istituto di Archeologia Cristiana, 1936–1952). The first volume was reprinted (Hoboken, NJ: Ktav, 1975) with an extensive Prolegomenon containing many additions and corrections by Baruch Lifshitz. The often-used abbreviation CII should be avoided since it also stands for Corpus Inscriptionum Iranicarum.


Pieter W. van der Horst, Ancient Jewish Epitaphs: An Introductory Survey of a Millennium of Jewish Funerary Epigraphy (300 B.C.E.–700 C.E.) (Kampen, Neth.: Kok-Pharos, 1991).


See, for example, Philo, Legatio ad Gaium 214; Josephus, The Jewish War 2.398 and 7.43; Sibyline Oracles 3.271; Strabo, cited in Josephus, Antiquities 14.115; Seneca, cited in Augustine, City of God 6.11.


See Colin J. Hemer, The Book of Acts in the Setting of Hellenistic History (Tübingen: Mohr, 1989), pp. 222–223. For an extensive survey of Diaspora settlements (based to a very great extent on epigraphical evidence) see Menahem Stern, “The Jewish Diaspora,” in The Jewish People in the First Century, ed. Shmuel Safrai and M. Stern (Assert, Neth.: van Gorcum/Philadelphia: Fortress, 1974), vol. 1, pp. 117–183, and also Emil Schürer, The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ, rev. ed. Geza Vermes et al. (Edinburgh: T & T. Clark, 1986), vol. 3, pp. 1–86.


Rachel Hachlili, “The Goliath Family in Jericho: Funerary Inscriptions from a First-Century A.D. Jewish Monumental Tomb,” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 235 (1979), pp. 31–66.


Moshe Schwabe and Lifshitz, Beth She’arim II; The Greek Inscriptions (Jerusalem: Massada, 1974).


Lifshitz, “L’hellenisation des Juifs de Palestine,” Revue biblique 72 (1965), pp. 520–538.


Frey, CIJ 358, imperial period. On Jewish Rome the best work is still Harry Joshua Leon, The Jews of Ancient Rome (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1960).


Schwabe and Lifshitz, Beth She’arim, no. 127, third century C.E.


Think, for example, of the Sadducees; see Jean le Moyne, Les Sadduceéns (Paris: Gabalda, 1972), pp. 167–175.


Frey, CIJ 32.


Schwabe and Lifshitz, Beth She’arim, nos. 193 and 194.


Frey, CIJ 725.


Adolph Deissmann long ago pointed this out. See his Licht vom Osten, 4th ed. (Tubingen: Mohr, 1923), pp. 351–362.


For the extremely complicated demographic problems concerned with the calculation of the age at death, see my Ancient Jewish Epitaphs, pp. 73–84, where the relevant literature is discussed.


Frey, CIJ 537, not from Porto, as Frey asserted in CIJ, pp. 396–407; see the corrections by Leon, “The Jewish Community of Ancient Porto,” Harvard Theological Review 45 (1952), pp. 165–175.


Leon, Jews of Ancient Rome, p. 186; cf. Schürer, History of the Jewish People, vol. 3, p. 101.


For the average age at marriage, probably about 14 or 15 years, see my Ancient Jewish Epitaphs, chap. 7, “Women,” esp. pp. 103–104.


Richard Lattimore, Themes in Greek and Latin Epitaphs (Urbana: Illinois Univ. Press, 1942), pp. 192–194, gives abundant references. Of special importance is the study by M. Alexiou and P. Dronke, “The Lament of Jephtha’s Daughter: Themes, Traditions, Originality,” Studi Medievali (3rd ser.) 12 (1971), pp. 819–863, esp. pp. 832–837 on funerary inscriptions.


Frey, CIJ 1509.


Frey, CIJ 1510.


Franz Cumont, Lux Perpetua (Paris: Geuthner, 1949), pp. 142–188, idem, AfterLife in Roman Paganism (New York: Dover, 1959 [1922]), pp. 91–109, esp. pp. 96–106; M. P. Nilsson, Geschichte der griechischen Religion 2nd ed. (Munich: Beck, 1961), vol. 2, pp. 278–279.


See e.g. Daniel 12:3; 1 Enoch 104:2; 4 Maccabees 17:5; 4 Ezra 7:97 (cf. 2 Esdras 7:125); 2 Baruch 51:10.


Frey, CIJ 788.


See my Sentences of Pseudo-Phocylides (Leiden: Brill, 1978), pp. 186–188, W. Bousset and H. Gressmann, Die Religion des Judentums im spathellenistischen Zeitalter (Tübingen: Mohr, 1926), pp. 322–323; Hengel, Judaism and Hellenism, vol. 1, pp. 196–197. For a balanced discussion, see now Michael E. Stone, Fourth Ezra (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1990), pp. 244–245 (ad 7:97).


Frey, CIJ 476.


R. Reisner, “Wurde das Familiengrab des Hohenpriesters Kajaphas entdeckt?” Bibel und Kirche 46 (1991), pp. 82–84.


Nahman Avigad, “A Depository of Inscribed Ossuaries in the Kidron Valley,” Israel Exploration Journal 12 (1962), pp. 9–12.


See also Hengel, Hellenization of Judaea, p. 67, n. 39.


For a general survey of New Testament names occurring in Acts that are also found in Jewish inscriptions, see Hemer, The Book of Acts, pp. 221–239.