Copied by Peter the Deacon in the 12th century C.E. See John Wilkinson, Egeria’s Travels to the Holy Land, rev. ed. (Warminster, England: Aris & Phillips, 1981), p. 201.


Adolf Asher, The Itinerary of Rabbi Benjamin of Tudela (New York: Hakesheth, 1840), p. 80.


P. Porat, O. Feder and S. Agadi, “Tel Yizre’el: August–September 1987,” Excavations and Surveys in Israel 7–8 (1988–1989), pp. 189–191; Ora Yogev, “Tel Yizre’el: October 1987–January 1988,” Excavations and Surveys in Israel 7–8, pp. 191–195.


David Ussishkin and John Woodhead, “Excavations at Tel Jezreel, 1990–1991, Preliminary Report,” Tel Aviv 19 (1992), pp. 3–56; Ussishkin and Woodhead, “Excavations at Tel Jezreel 1992–1993: Second Preliminary Report,” Levant 26 (1994), pp. 1–48; Ussishkin and Woodhead, “Excavations at Tel Jezreel 1994–1996; Third Preliminary Report,” Tel Aviv 24 (1997), pp. 6–72.


Nadav Na’aman, “Historical and Literary Notes on the Excavation of Tel Jezreel,” Tel Aviv 24 (1997), pp. 122–128.


Israel Finkelstein, “The Archaeology of the United Monarchy: An Alternative View,” Levant 28 (1996), pp. 177–187.


James B. Pritchard, ed., Ancient Near Eastern Texts, Relating to the Old Testament, 2nd ed., L. Oppenheim, trans. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press, 1955), p. 276.


Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts, p. 279.