1. See Frankie Snyder, Gabriel Barkay and Zachi Dvira, “What the Temple Mount Floor Looked Like,BAR 42:06.


1. Celal Şimşek, “A Menorah with a Cross Carved on a Column of Nymphaeum A at Laodicea ad Lycum,” Journal of Roman Archaeology 19 (2006), pp. 343–346.

2. David G. Peterson, The Acts of the Apostles. PNTC (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2009), p. 528; Eckhard J. Schnabel, Acts, ZECNT (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2012), p. 783.

3. The route would have gone north of the Messogis Mountains and connected with the Cayster River valley leading to Ephesus.

4. Schnabel, Acts, p. 667.

5. Acts 19:9 declares that during Paul’s lengthy stay—for more than two years—in Ephesus on his third mission, the apostle established a school for the training of his disciples. This school, called the School of Tyrannus, operated for two years until Paul’s departure from Ephesus. The school operated in quarters provided by a patron named Tyrannus. An inscription bearing the name of Tyrannus has been found in Ephesus and is currently on display in the Ephesus Museum. Disciples trained at the school were sent out into the surrounding cities, towns and villages with the gospel message “so that all who lived in Asia heard the word of the Lord, both Jews and Greeks” (Acts 19:10).

6. Paul described him as “our beloved fellow bondservant” and as “a faithful servant of Christ on your behalf” (Colossians 1:7).

7. At the conclusion of Paul’s letter to the Colossians, the apostle expanded his account of Epaphras: “I bear him witness that he has a deep concern for you and for those who are in Laodicea and Hierapolis” (Colossians 4:13). From this statement, it is logical to assume that Epaphras had a hand in the evangelism of Laodicea and Hierapolis in addition to Colossae.

8. The Sibylline Oracle (supposedly written by the Sibyl at Cumae during the first century B.C.E.—but heavily interpolated by Jews, Christians and others)—offers this observation: “Stalwart Laodicea, a quake will one day topple and level you, but you will stand rebuilt as a city” (4.107). Another of the oracles is more provocative: “But when a destructive man comes from Italy, then Laodicea, dashed down headlong, beautiful town of the Carians by the wonderful waters of Lycus, you will be silent, bemoaning a conceited parent” (3.470). It is not known when or by whom these statements were written, but the second one seems to echo Christian notions of the antichrist. Paul wrote about the “man of lawlessness, the son of destruction” (2 Thessalonians 2:3), and this figure plays an important role in the Book of Revelation.

9. Celal Şimşek, Church of Laodicea: Christianity in the Lykos Valley (Denizli: Denizli Metropolitan Municipality, 2015).