Charles F. Tyrwhitt Drake, “Reports,” PEF Quarterly Statement 1874, p. 24.


William F. Albright, “Interesting Finds in Tumuli Near Jerusalem,” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 10 (1923), pp. 1–3. See also Louis H. Vincent, “Fouilles de l’École americaine,” Revue Biblique 33 (1924), pp. 420–421, and Leona Glidden Running and David Noel Freedman, William Foxwell Albright, A Twentieth-Century Genius (New York: Morgan Press, 1975), pp. 112–113.


Ruth B.K. Amiran, “The Tumuli West of Jerusalem, Survey and Excavations, 1953,” Israel Exploration Journal 8 (1958), pp. 205–227.


Running and Freedman, p. 179. Ruth Amiran’s dig was also visited by W. F. Albright in 1953.


Amiran, “Tumuli West of Jerusalem,” pp. 226–227.


Ze’ev Yeivin, “Excavations at Tumulus No. 3 in Jerusalem,” Eretz-Israel 25 (Joseph Aviram Volume) (Jerusalem, 1996), pp. 175–183 (Hebrew). English summary: pp. 94*-95.*


Vassos Karageorghis, Excavations in the Necropolis of Salamis, Vol. III (Cyprus, Nicosia: Department of Antiquities, 1973), pp. 128–202 and further details in the illustrations volumes. See also Vassos Karageorghis, Salamis in Cyprus: Homeric, Hellenistic and Roman (London: Thames & Hudson, 1969), pp. 151–164.


Additional indirect evidence comes from another passage in Jeremiah, about the burial of King Jehoiakim (who ruled 609–598 B.C.E.). Jeremiah speaks of a lament, which, according to the prophet, would not be heard when the king dies: Hoi ahi, vhoi ahot, hoi adon vhoi hodo (“alas brother and alas sister alas master and alas his majesty”) (Jeremiah 22:18).


This interpretation of the tumuli as ceremonial mounds for the kings of Judah opens a window on an enigmatic verse in Jeremiah that speaks of the punishment God will inflict on Babylon for the wicked things it did to Zion (Jeremiah 51:24). God calls Babylon a “mountain of destruction” (har hamashchit). Then God goes on to say that he will make Babylon into a “burnt mountain” (har srefa) from which neither a “cornerstone or a foundation stone” will be taken (Jeremiah 51:25). Srefa is the same term used in the many verses previously cited for the great fire made in memory of the kings of Judah. Our new interpretation of the making of a bonfire as part of the memorial ceremony for the kings of Judah and the piling after the ceremony of earth and rocks into a mound offers a possible explanation for this puzzling verse in Jeremiah. The mounds were named “mountain of burning” and people were not allowed to take any stones from them for construction or any other purpose.