John Bright, A History of Israel (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1981), p. 120.


Neils Peter Lemche, Ancient Israel; A New History of Israelite Society (Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1988), p. 31.


Bernard Batto, Slaying the Dragon: Mythmaking in the Biblical Tradition (Louisville: Westminster/John Knox, 1992), p. 102.


For a recent discussion of this type of problem, see David Merling, “The Relationship Between Archaeology and the Bible: Expectations and Reality,” in James K. Hoffmeier and Alan Millard, eds., The Future of Biblical Archaeology: Reassessing Methodologies and Assumptions (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2004), pp. 29–42.


John Baines and Jaromír Málek, Atlas of Ancient Egypt (New York: Facts on File, 1980).


One example is the corpus found by Petrie at Tanis in the late 19th century. See F.L. Griffith & W.M.F Petrie, Two Hieroglyphic Papyri from Tanis (London: Egypt Exploration Fund, 1889). These texts are from the Roman era.


I am grateful to Professor Bietak for showing me his excavations and the bullae.


Only in September 2003 was the first fragment of a clay tablet discovered at Qantir, and this was a portion of a letter from the Hittite king, Hatusilis III, to Ramesses II. Formal publication of the text is in progress.


Miriam Lictheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975), p. 141.


Translation my own, text is found in Alan H. Gardiner, Late-Egyptian Miscellanies (Brussels: Queen Elizabeth Egyptological Foundation, 1937), p. 77.


Tell el-Maskhuta, Tell el-Retabeh, Tell el-Yehudiah, Inshas, Tell Farasha, Tell el-Kebir and of course Tell el-Dab’a, the Hyksos capital. J.K. Hoffmeier, Israel in Egypt (London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1999) pp. 62–68.


Kenneth Kitchen, “From the Brickfields of Egypt,” Tyndale Bulletin 27 (1976), pp. 141–144.


Kitchen, pp. 141–142.


Richard A. Caminos, Late-Egyptian Miscellanies (London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1954), p. 106.


Caminos, Late-Egyptian Miscellanies, p. 188.


Hoffmeier, Israel in Egypt, p. 114. The break in the text makes identifying the building under construction, but the epithet “beloved of Ma’at” used in Papyrus Leiden 348 is found in Papyrus Anastasi IV 5, 6 applied to the king’s palace; cf. Caminos, Late-Egyptian Miscellanies, p. 153.


Unpublished study by Ellen Morris (“The Consequences of Conquest: A Foreign Population’s Entrance and Acculturation into Ancient Egyptian Society”). Dr. Morris, a professor at the University of Wales, Swansea, kindly gave me a version of this paper some years ago, and at the recent International Congress of Egyptology (September 2004) presented an updated version (cf. Abstracts of the Ixe Congrès des Egyptologues, 6–12 Sepembre 2004, p. 85).


Alan H. Gardiner, “The Residence of the Ramessides,” Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 5 (1918), pp. 127–138.


In the early 1940s, Labib Habachi led him to believe that Tell el Dab‘a-Qantir were home to Avaris and Pi-Ramesses respectively. Most of his discoveries were only recently published 20 years after his death and nearly 40 years after his excavations. cf. Labib Habachi, Tell el-Dab‘a I: Tell el-Dab‘a and Qantir the Site and Its Connection with Avaris and Piramesse (Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2001).


Edgar Pusch, “Piramesse,” in D. Redford, ed., Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt 3 (New York: Oxford Univ., 2001), pp. 48–50. It should be noted that back in the 1940s and 1950s, the Egyptian archaeologist Labib Habachi had excavated in the Qantir/Tell el-Dab‘a region. His reports were only recently published nearly 20 years after his death, but in 1955 he proposed that Qantir was Pi-Ramesses and Ra`amses of the Bible. See Habachi, Tell el Dab’a I, pp. 23–127.


Edgar Pusch, “Towards a Map of Piramesse,” Egyptian Archaeology 14 (1999), pp. 13–15.


Kenneth Kitchen, The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (1100–650 B.C.), 3rd ed. (Warminster: Aris and Phillips, 1986), pp. 243–254.


Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman, The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology’s New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts (New York: The Free Press, 2001).


Donald Redford, Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times (Princeton: Princeton Univ., 1992), p. 409.


John Van Seters, “The Geography of the Exodus,” in J. Andrew Dearman and M. Patrick Graham, eds., The Land That I Will Show You: Essays on the History and Archaeology of the Ancient Near East in Honour of J. Maxwell Miller (Sheffield: JSOT Press, 2001), p. 256.


Edward Wente, “Rameses,” in D.N. Freedman, ed., Anchor Bible Dictionary 5 (New York: Doubleday, 1992), pp. 617–618.


Niels Peter Lemche, “Is It Still Possible to Write a History of Israel?,” Scandanavian Journal of Old Testament 8 (1994), pp. 172–174.


John S. Holladay, Tell El-Maskhuta: Preliminary Report on the Wadi Tumilat Project 1978–1979, Cities of the Delta, Part III, vol. 6, ARCE Reports (Malibu: Undena Publications, 1982).




H. Edouard Naville, The Store City of Pithom and the Route of the Exodus (London: EEF Memoir, 1888).


This statue is not yet published, but I studied it together with Dr. Abd el-Maksoud on the day it was discovered and agree with his reading. See James K. Hoffmeier and Mohamed Abd el Maksoud, “A New Military Site on the ‘Ways of Horus’—Tell El-Borg 1999–2001: A Preliminary Report,” Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 89 (2003), pp. 171–172.


Daniel J. Stanley and Mahmoud M. Abu-Zeid, “Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Clay Minerals in Late Quaternary Deposits of the Nile Delta, Egypt,” Journal of Coastal Research 6, no. 3 (1990); Daniel and Vincent Coutellier Stanley, “Late Quaternary Stratigraphy and Paleography of the Eastern Nile Delta, Egypt,” Marine Geology 77 (1987).


William Ward, “The Biconsonantal Root Sp and the Common Origin of Egyptian Cwf and the Hebrew Sup: Marsh (-Plant),” Vetus Testamentum 24 (1974), pp. 339–349.


Manfred Bietak, Tell El-Dab‘a, vol. 2 (Vienna: Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1975), pp. 136–137.


Alan H. Gardiner, Ancient Egyptian Onomastica, vol. 2 (London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1947), pp. 122–202.


Bietak, Tell El-Dab‘a vol. 2, pp. 136–137.