Heikki Räisänen, Paul and the Law (Tübingen: Mohr, 1987), p. 264.


J.C. O’Neill, The Recovery of Paul’s Letter to the Galatians (London: SPCK, 1972), p. 47.


Robert Hammerton-Kelly, Sacred Violence: Paul’s Hermeneutic of the Cross (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1992), pp. 11–12.


Adolf von Harnack, What Is Christianity? (New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1901), p. 190.


Lloyd Gaston, Paul and the Torah (Vancouver: Univ. of British Columbia Press, 1987), p. 15.


The story is preserved in the writings of the fourth-century Christian bishop Epiphanius of Salamis, Panarion (also known as Refutation of All Heresies) 30.16.6–9. For a translation, see The Writings of St. Paul, ed. Wayne A. Meeks (New York: Norton, 1972), pp. 177–178.


Krister Stendahl, Paul Among Jews and Gentiles and Other Essays (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1976); Final Account, Paul’s Letter to the Romans (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1995).


Stanley Stowers, A Rereading of Romans: Justice, Jews, and Gentiles (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1994).


See the discussion of W.D. Davies in “Paul and the People of Israel,” New Testament Studies 24 (1977), pp. 7–8.


Michael Wyschogrod, “The Impact of Dialogue with Christianity on My Self-Understanding as a Jew,” in Die Hebraische Bibel und ihre zweifache Nachgeschichte, ed. Erhard Blum et al. (Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener, 1990), p. 731. Wyschogrod wavers a bit, but in the end seems convinced (p. 733). George Foot Moore, in his magisterial Judaism in the First Centuries of the Christian Era: The Age of the Tannaim, 3 vols. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 1962), made a similar observation, but like much else in his work, no one bothered to follow up on it: “He [Paul] was, in fact, not writing to convince Jews but to keep his Gentile converts from being convinced by Jewish propagandists, who insisted that faith in Christ was not sufficient to salvation apart from the observance of the law” (vol. 3, p. 151). The “Jewish propagandists” are Paul’s opponents in the Jesus movement.


Wyschogrod, “Dialogue,” p. 723.


Gaston, Paul and the Torah, p. 23.