This is sometimes called the Song of Moses, but it is better to reserve that appellation for Deuteronomy 32 to avoid confusion.


See Phyllis Trible, “Bringing Miriam Out of the Shadows,” BR 05:01.


See Carey A. Moore, “Judith—The Case of the Pious Killer,” BR 06:01.



The fragment is discussed in detail in Sidnie A. White, “4Q364 and 365: A Preliminary Report,” The Madrid Qumran Congress, ed. J. Trebolle Barrera and L. Vegas Montaner, Studies in the Texts of the Desert of Judah 11 (Leiden: Brill; Madrid: Editorial Complutense, 1992), pp. 222–224. I am very grateful to Sidnie White and to Eileen Schuller for several helpful comments that have improved my study of this fragment.


These manuscripts were previously referred to as Pentateuchal Paraphrases.


The reference to a female figure in the third person need be no problem if the song was sung antiphonally by Miriam and the women with her. This phrase would then possibly belong to the part sung by the women.


The most recent comprehensive assessment of the hymns in Luke is by S. Farris, The Hymns of Luke’s Infancy Narratives: Their Origin, Meaning and Significance, Journal for the Study of the New Testament, Supplement 9 (Sheffield, UK: Journal for the Study of the Old Testament Press, 1985). Paul Winter has suggested that both the Magnificat and the Benedictus (Luke 1:68–79) were Maccabean Psalms (Winter, “Magnificat and Benedictus—Maccabean Psalms,” Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 37 [1954], pp. 328–343).


It is probable that “the poor” in this context is not a technical self-designation of the community; even if it is, the hope for reversal still applies, though it would need to be considered solely in spiritual terms.


Taking up the hints of those who have considered the Lucan Magnificat and Benedictus to be pre-Christian hymns, David Flusser has shown how this section of the War Scroll has many affinities with those two poems. (See Flusser, “The Magnificat, The Benedictus and the War Scroll,” in Judaism and the Origins of Christianity [Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1988], pp. 134–143. Links between the Magnificat and Benedictus and the Hodayot from Qumran have recently been proposed by M. P. Horgan and P. J. Kobelski in “The Hodayot (1QH) and New Testament Poetry,” in To Touch the Text: Biblical and Related Studies in Honor of Joseph A. Fitzmyer, S.J., eds. Horgan and Kobelski [New York: Crossroad, 1989], pp. 179–193.) Flusser proposes that the Magnificat, the Benedictus and the section of the War Scroll may depend on a common source whose basic components would include the very sections that comparison with the new Song of Miriam now suggests. At this point the two traditions seem to overlap, those of the victory songs associated with women, and those of the victory songs in the War Scroll.