The translations referred to in this article are the FC (La Bible en Français Courant, new rev. ed., 1997); GNB (Good News Bible, 2nd ed., 1992); NIV (New International Version, 2nd ed., 1983); NJB (New Jerusalem Bible, 1985); NRSV (New Revised Standard Bible, 1990); REB (Revised English Bible, 1989); RSV (Revised Standard Version, 2nd ed., 1971); and TOB (Traduction Oecuménique de la Bible, 2nd ed., 1988).



See Bruce Metzger, Manuscripts of the Greek Bible: An Introduction to Greek Palaeography (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1981), p. 31. See also Kurt Aland and Barbara Aland, The Text of the New Testament, 2nd ed. (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1989), p. 287. Systematic separation of words and sections of the text did not occur until the 11th century, and punctuation and accentuation were fairly elementary until the seventh century (see Léon Vaganay and Christian-Bernard Amphouz, An Introduction to New Testament Textual Criticism, 2nd ed.[Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1991], pp. 8–9).


The Greek New Testament, 4th ed., ed. B. Aland et al. (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1993).


Novum Testamentum Graece, 27th ed., ed. B. Aland et al. (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1993).


Several recent English-language commentaries support the translation “Junia.” See James D.G. Dunn, Romans 9–16 (Dallas: Word Books, 1988), pp. 894–895; John Ziesler, Paul’s Letter to the Romans (Philadelphia: Trinity Press International, 1989), p. 351; and Joseph Fitzmyer, Romans (New York: Doubleday, 1993), pp. 737–739. On women as apostles, see Roger L. Omanson, “The Role of Women in the New Testament Church,” Review and Expositor 83 (1986), p. 17.


This translation appears in The Bible: An American Translation (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1935). The New Testament was translated by Edgar J. Goodspeed and the Old Testament by a group of scholars under the editorship of J.M. Powis Smith.


Augustinus Merk’s Novum Testamentum Graece et Latine, 10th ed. (Rome: Sumptibus Pontificii Instituti Biblici, 1984), begins a new paragraph with these same words, as do most modern translations.


Gordon D. Fee (The First Epistle to the Corinthians [Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1987], pp. 234–236) makes a strong case for punctuating this verse as a question.


A.G. Newell, “Too Many Modern Versions?” The Evangelical Quarterly 53 (1981), pp. 227–236.