According to Muslim tradition, al-Sakhra marks the spot from which Muhammad ascended to heaven. Jewish tradition views the rock as the place where Abraham nearly sacrificed his son Isaac (Muslims believe that it was Abraham’s son Ishmael, their ancestor, rather than Isaac).
An extensive review and bibliography of the suggested locations of the Temple prior to Asher Kaufman and Leen Ritmeyer is given in T.A. Busink, Der Tempel von Jerusalem, von Salomo bis Herodes: Eines Archäologisch-historische Studie unter berücksichtigung des westsemitischen Tempelbaus (Brill: Leiden, 1970–1980), vol. 1, pp. 1–20. A more abridged bibliography of this subject is given in Leen Ritmeyer, “Locating the Original Temple Mount,” pp. 64–65, n. 29.
Shimon Gibson and David M. Jacobson, “The Oldest Datable Chambers on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem,” Biblical Archaeologist 57:3 (1994), pp. 150–160.
Yoram Tsafrir, “The Location of the Seleucid Akra in Jerusalem,” Revue biblique 82 (1975), pp. 501–521; Benjamin Mazar, “The Temple Mount,” in Biblical Archaeology Today: Proceedings of the International Congress on Biblical Archaeology, Jerusalem, April 1984 (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1985), p. 466.
Joannes Simons, Jerusalem in the Old Testament (Brill: Leiden, 1952), p. 346.
Simons, Jerusalem in the Old Testament, p. 347.
Claude R. Conder, “Age of the Temple Wall: Pilasters of the West Haram Wall,” Palestine Exploration Fund Quarterly Statement 3 (1877), pp. 135–177.
Louis-Hugues Vincent and Ernest J.H. Mackay, Hébron, le Haram el-Khalil, sépulture des Patriarches (Paris: Gabalda, 1923), pp. 103–106.
See Charles Warren and Conder, Survey of Western Palestine: Jerusalem Volume (London: Palestine Exploration Fund, 1884), pp. 117–216.
See, for example, Margaret Lyttelton, “The Design and Planning of Temples and Sanctuaries in Asia Minor in the Roman Imperial Period,” in S. Macready and F.H. Thompson, eds., Roman Architecture in the Greek World, Occasional Papers, n.s., 10 (London: Society of Antiquaries in London), pp. 38–49.
Josephus, The Jewish War 5.190–192; Antiquities of the Jews 15.396, 411–416.
Josephus, Jewish War 5.207.
James J. Coulton, The Architectural Development of the Greek Stoa (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1976), pp. 182–183.
Mazar, “The Royal Stoa in the Southern Part of the Temple Mount,” in Recent Archaeology in the Land of Israel, ed. Hershel Shanks (English ed.) (Washington, DC: Biblical Archaeology Society; Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1984), pp. 141–147.
Dan Barag, “King Herod’s Royal Castle at Samaria-Sebaste,” Palestine Exploration Quarterly 125 (1993), pp. 4, 16, n. 6. For Sebastos as a Greek translation of Augustus and the linguistic meaning of these titles, see Dio Cassius 53.16.8.
Josephus, Jewish War 1.403; Antiquities of the Jews 15.298; see Ehud Netzer, “The Augusteum at Samaria-Sebaste: A New Outlook,” Eretz Israel 19 (1987), pp. 97–105.
John Wilkinson, “The Streets of Jerusalem,” Levant 7 (1975), pp. 123–125, 128–135, figs. 4, 5.
Warren and Conder, Survey, p. 215.
Michael H. Burgoyne and Donald S. Richards, Mamluk Jerusalem: An Architectural Study (Buckhurst Hill: World of Islam Festival Trust, 1987), pp. 202–204, fig. 14.2 (marked “C”), pl. 14.2.
Warren and Conder, Survey, pp. 129–130. Warren also conducted another probe some 65 feet north of the point that he reached in the subterranean gallery driven beyond the northeast corner of al-Haram al-Sharif. This revealed a wall of a different style (evidently belonging to a later period), which, unlike Herodian masonry, rests on concrete instead of bedrock.
Warren, Plans, Elevations, Sections, &c., Shewing the Results of the Excavations at Jerusalem, 1867–1870 (London: Palestine Exploration Fund, 1884), pl. 13.
Jacobson, “The Plan of the Ancient Haram el-Khalil in Hebron,” Palestine Exploration Quarterly 113 (1981), pp. 73–80.
Jacobson, “Hadrianic Architecture and Geometry,” American Journal of Archaeology 90 (1986), pp. 71–75.
Netzer, Masada III: The Yigal Yadin Excavations, 1963–1965, Final Reports, The Buildings, Stratigraphy and Architecture (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1991); Gideon Foerster, Masada V: The Yigal Yadin Excavations 1963–1965, Final Reports, Art and Architecture (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1995).
My analysis of the plan of the Northern Palace at Masada, which shows the geometrical basis of the entire palace, will be published in the Bulletin of the Anglo-Israel Archaeological Society.
Netzer, “Greater Herodium,” Qedem 13 (1981). For a geometrical analysis of the circular enclosure at Hebron, see Jacobson, “The Design of the Fortress of Herodium,” Zeitschrift des deutschen Palästina-Vereins 100 (1986), pp. 127–136.
Asher Ovadiah, “Mosaic Pavements of the Herodian Period in Israel,” in Proceedings of the Fifth International Colloquium in Ancient Mosaics, Bath, 5–12 September 1987, ed. R. Ling and D.J. Smith, part 1, Journal of Roman Archaeology Supplement Series 9 (1994), pp. 67–76 (mosaics); Michael Avi-Yonah, “Oriental Art in Roman Palestine,” Studii Semitici 5 (1961), pp. 15–21 (stonework).
Nahman Avigad, Discovering Jerusalem: Recent Archaeological Excavations in the Upper City (Oxford: Blackwell, 1984), pp. 104, 144.
Warren, in The Recovery of Jerusalem: A Narrative of Exploration and Discovery in the City and the Holy Land (London, 1871), p. 231; see also Spencer Corbett, “Some Observations on the Gateways to the Herodian Temple in Jerusalem,” Palestine Exploration Quarterly 84 (1952), pp. 8–9.
Warren and Conder, Survey, p. 165.
There is controversy as to what this term originally meant. I believe that it referred to an ancient stone relic that was used as a low pedestal and that only in late antiquity was it taken to refer to al-Sakhra. Thus, Mishnah Yoma 5.2: “After the Ark was taken away, a stone remained there from the time of the early Prophets, and it was called ‘Shetiyah.’ It was three finger-breadths above the ground. On this he used to put (the fire-pan).”
Elkan N. Adler, Jewish Travellers in the Middle Ages: 19 Firsthand Accounts (New York: Dover, 1987), p. 118.
Conder, Tent Work in Palestine: A Record of Discovery and Adventure, 2 vols. (London: Richard Bentley, 1878), p. 361, pl. facing p. 359.
Frederick J. Hollis, The Archaeology of Herod’s Temple: With a Commentary on the Tractate Middoth (London: Dent, 1934), p. 309; Miriam Rosen-Ayalon, “The Early Islamic Monuments of al-Haram al-Sharif, an Iconographic Study,” Qedem 28 (1989), p. 27 n. 21.
Haroutune Kalayan, “The Engraved Drawing on the Trilithon and the Related Problems about the Constructional History of Baalbek Temples,” Bulletin Musée Beyrouth 22 (1969), p. 154, fig. 2.
Arye Ben-David, “Ha-Middah ha-Yerushalmit: An Archaeological Solution of a Talmudic Metrological Problem,” Israel Exploration Journal 19 (1969), pp. 159–169; “The Hebrew-Phoenician Cubit,” Palestine Exploration Quarterly 110 (1978), pp. 27–28.
Mishnah, Middot 4.6–7.
As measured on the original manuscript version of the 1:500 Ordnance Survey map of al-Haram al-Sharif, dating from 1864/65, which is preserved in the archives of the Palestine Exploration Fund in London.
Again, as measured on the original Ordnance Survey map.
Wilkinson, “Architectural Procedures in Byzantine Palestine,” Levant 13 (1981), p. 168, table 3.
Origen, Commentary on Matthew 4 on 24:15; Bordeaux Pilgrim, Travels 591.4. See Wilkinson, “Christian Pilgrims in Jerusalem During the Byzantine Period,” Palestine Exploration Quarterly 108 (1976), pp. 77–78, and Jerusalem Pilgrims Before the Crusades (Warminster: Aris and Phillips, 1977), p. 173a. The base of the second statue, which was of the emperor Antonius Pius, is built into the southern wall of the Temple Mount and can be seen, with the inscription upside down, above the Double Gate.
Bordeaux Pilgrim, Travels 591.1. See Wilkinson, Egeria’s Travels (London: S.P.C.K., 1971), pp. 156–157, and Jerusalem Pilgrims Before the Crusades, pp. 173a-b.
Amikam Elad, “Why Did ‘Abd al-Malik Build the Dome of the Rock? A Re-examination of the Muslim Sources,” in Julian Raby and J. Johns, eds., Bayt al-Maqdis, ‘Abd al-Malik’s Jerusalem (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1992), p. 49.