See Stephen Goranson “Qumran—A Hub of Scribal Activity,BAR, September/October 1994. See also Stephen Goranson, “Qumran—The Evidence of the Inkwells,BAR 19:06.


Sidnie White Crawford, “A View from the Caves,BAR 37:05.



Ada Yardeni, “A Note on a Qumran Scribe,” in M. Lubetski, ed., New Seals and Inscriptions: Hebrew Idumean, and Cuneiform (Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix Press, 2007), pp. 287–298.


John Strugnell, “Notes en marge du volume V des ‘Discoveries in the Judean Desert of Jordan,’ ” Review de Qumran 7 (1970), pp. 163–276. See Emanuel Tov, Scribal Practices and Approaches Reflected in the Texts Found in the Judean Desert (Leiden/Boston: Brill, 2004), pp. 23–24, who also includes a full bibliography. See also Eibert Tigchelaar, “In Search of the Scribe of 1QS,” in Shalom Paul et al., eds., Emanuel: Studies in Hebrew Bible, Septuagint, and Dead Sea Scrolls in Honor of Emanuel Tov (Leiden: Brill, 2003), pp. 439–452.


Eugene Ulrich, “Identification of a Scribe Active at Qumran: 1QPsb-4QIsac-11QM,” in M. Bar-Asher and E. Tov, eds., Meghillot: Studies in the Dead Sea Scrolls V-VI. A Festschrift for Devorah Dimant (Jerusalem: Bialik Institute and Haifa University Press, 2007) pp. 201–210. Ulrich has informed me (private communication) that this same scribe also penned 4QDanb.


G. Bonani, I. Carmi, S. Ivy, J. Strugnell and W. Wölfli, “Radiocarbon Dating of the Dead Sea Scrolls,” Atiqot 20 (1991), pp. 27–32. A.J.T. Jull, D.J. Donahue, M. Broshi and E. Tov, “Radiocarbon Dating of Scrolls and Linen Fragments from the Judean Desert,” Atiqot 28 (1996), pp. 1–7.


Frank Moore Cross, “Paleography,” in L.H. Schiffman and J.C. VanderKam, eds., The Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, vol. 2 (New York: Oxford, 2000), p. 631.


B.A. Levine, P.J. King, J. Naveh and E. Stern, eds., Eretz Israel 26: Frank Moore Cross Volume (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1999), p. xi.


Yardeni, “A Note on a Qumran Scribe,” p. 288. For a discussion on chronology at Qumran, see Jodi Magness, The Archaeology of Qumran and the Dead Sea Scrolls (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2002).


Brian Webster, “Chronological Index of the Texts from the Judean Desert,” in Emanuel Tov, Texts from the Judaean Desert, Discoveries in the Judaean Desert Series 04XIX (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2002), p. 375.


Shemaryahu Talmon, “Qumran Corner: Fragments of a Joshua Apocryphon—Masada 1039–211,” Journal of Jewish Studies 47 (1996), pp. 128–139.


Carol Newsom, “Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice,” in L.H. Schiffman and J.C. VanderKam, eds., The Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, vol. 2 (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 2000), pp. 887–889.