See Timothy Gantz, Early Greek Myth: A Guide to Literary and Artistic Sources (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1993), vol. 1, pp. 400–402. Portions of this article are based on my paper, “The ‘Monster of Troy’ Vase: The Earliest Artistic Record of a Vertebrate Fossil Discovery?” Oxford Journal of Archaeology (February 2000), pp. 57–63; and on my The First Fossil Hunters: Paleontology in Greek and Roman Times (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 2000).


Cornelius Vermeule, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Bulletin 61 (1963), p. 162.


John Boardman, “Very Like a Whale—Classical Sea Monsters,” in A.E. Farkas et al., eds., Monsters and Demons in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds: Papers Presented in Honor of Edith Porada (Mainz: Philipp von Zabern, 1987), pp. 73–84.


Karl Schefold, Gods and Heroes in Late Archaic Greek Art (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1992), pp. 150, 314.


Pausanias, Guide to Greece 9.18.2–5, 1.35.3, 3.3.7.


Philostratus, On Heroes 8:3–14.


Richard Fortey, “They Might Be Giants,” London Review of Books (November 2, 2000), p. 25.


I would like to thank paleontologists Eric Buffetaut, Christine Janis, George Koufos, Dale Russell, Sevket Sen, Matt Smith and Nikos Solounias for sharing their expertise.