For a good description of the issues, see Ian Morris, “The Use and Abuse of Homer,” Classical Antiquity 5 (1986), pp. 81–138.
Quoted in Ulrich Eberl, “Behind the Myth of Troy,” Daimler Benz High Tech Report (January 1995), p. 17.
Cornelius Vermeule III provides a good survey of Troy’s importance in “Neon Ilion and Ilium Novum: Kings, Soldiers, Citizens and Tourists at Classical Troy,” in The Ages of Homer, ed. Jane B. Carter and Sarah P. Morris (Austin: Univ. of Texas, 1995), pp. 467–482.
Quoted by the late second-century author Athenaeus in 8.347E.
Andrew Lang,Homer and the Epic (London: Lang, Longmans, Green and Co., 1893), p. 8.
Ulrich von Wilamowitz, Die Ilias und Homer (Berlin: Weidman, 1916), p. 322.
J.A.K. Thomson, Studies in the Odyssey (Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press, 1914), p. 189.
S.E. Bassett, The Poetry of Homer (Berkeley: Univ. of California, 1938), p. 244.
E.R. Dodds, Fifty Years (and Twelve) of Classical Scholarship (Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press, 1954), p. 8f.
Milman Parry, The Making of Homeric Verse, ed. Adam Parry (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971).
For a sampling of differing conclusions, see Carol G. Thomas, ed., Homer’s History: Mycaenaean or Dark Age? (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1970).
Rhys Carpenter, Folk Tale, Fiction and Saga in the Homeric Epics (Berkeley: Univ. of California, 1962), p. 26.
M.I. Finley, The World of Odysseus (New York: Viking Press, 1954).
Some would contest the claim that writing disappeared during the Dark Age. Since an alphabet was in use in the Near East in the second millennium, some scholars argue that it was introduced into the Aegean in the late second or early first millennium. See Joseph Naveh, The Early History of the Alphabet(Leiden, the Netherlands: E.J. Brill, 1982). As far as actual evidence goes, however, the earliest alphabetic inscriptional evidence from Greece dates only from the eighth century B.C., and there is no trace of the earlier Linear B script after the collapse of the palace centers.
Eric Havelock, Preface to Plato (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, 1963).
Kurt Raaflaub, “Homer und die Geschichte des 8.Hr.s.v.Chr.,” in J. Latacz ed., Zweihundert Jahre Homer-Forschung (Stuttgart: B.G. Teubner, 1991) pp. 205–256.
J. Michael Padgett, “A Geometric Bard,” in Carter and Morris, The Ages of Homer (Austin: Univ. of Texas, 1995), pp. 389–405.
J.K. Anderson, “The Geometric Catalogue of Ships,” in Carter and Morris, The Ages of Homer, pp. 181–191, offers a compelling account of the creative transformation of the Dark Age bards.
Thomas, “The Homeric Epics: Strata or a Spectrum?” Colby Classical Quarterly 29 (1993), pp. 273–282.