Kurt Sethe, Die Altaegyptischen Pyramidentexte (Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs, 1908), pp. 887a–888c.


Günther Dreyer, “Recent Discoveries at Abydos Cemetery U,” in The Nile Delta in Transition, ed. Edwin C.M. van den Brink (Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv Univ. Press, 1992), pp. 293–299; and “Horus Krokodil, ein Gegenkönig der Dynastie 0, ” in The Followers of Horus: Studies Dedicated to Michael Allen Hoffman, 1944–1990, ed. Richard Friedman and Bryant Adams (Oxford: Oxbow, 1992), pp. 259–264.


Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature, vol. 1, The Old and the Middle Kingdoms (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1973), pp. 223.


Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature, p. 224.


Henri Gauthier, Livre des Rois, vols. 3–5 (Cairo: Institut français d’archéologie orientale, 1916).


This is discussed by Eric Hornung in Conceptions of God in Ancient Egypt (Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press, 1982), p. 141.


Alberto Green, “Solomon & Siamun: A Synchronism between Early Dynastic Israel and the Twenty-First Dynasty Egypt,” JBL 97 (1978), pp. 353–367. See also James K. Hoffmeier, “Egypt As an Arm of Flesh: A Prophetic Response,” in Israel’s Apostasy and Restoration, ed. Avraham Gileadi (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1988), pp. 79–85.


Kenneth Kitchen, The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (1100–650 B.C.) (Warminster: Aris & Phillips, 1986), pp. 279–283.


Raphael Giveon, The Impact of Egypt on Canaan, Orbis biblicus et orientalis 20 (Freiburg: University Press, 1983); Hoffmeier, “Some Egyptian Motifs Related to Warfare and Enemies and Their Old Testament Counterparts,” in Egyptological Miscellanies: A Tribute to Professor Ronald J. Williams, ed. Hoffmeier and Edmund S. Meltzer; The Ancient World 6 (Chicago: Ares Publishers, 1983), pp. 53–70. The famous ivories from Megiddo, Samaria and Nimrud show Egyptian influence in the art, probably via Phoenicia (cf. Sir Max Mallowan, The Nimrud Ivories [London: British Museum, 1978], pp. 26–43). Notice the winged sphinxes wearing the Egyptian nemes crown surmounted by the double crown of Upper and Lower Egypt on the ivories in Elie Borowski, “Cherubim: God’s Throne?” BAR 21:04.


Roland de Vaux, Ancient Israel, vol. 1 (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1961), p. 112.


F. Charles Fensham, “Father and Son as Terminology for Treaty and Covenant,” in Near Eastern Studies in Honor of William Foxwell Albright, ed. Hans Goedicke (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1971), pp. 121–135. Earlier on, Philip Calderone thought that Hittite treaty influence might be detected in 2 Samuel 7 (Dynastic Oracle and Suzertainty Treaty, 2 Samuel 7, 8–16 [Manila: Manila University, 1966], p. 51). For further discussion of Near Eastern treaty terminology, see Hoffmeier, “The Wives’ Tales of Genesis 12, 20 & 26 and the Covenants at Beer-Sheba,” Tyndale Bulletin 43:1 (1992), pp. 93–97 and references therein.


Fensham, “Father and Son,” p. 130.


See Robert Gordon, I & II Samuel (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1986), pp. 239–240; A.A. Anderson, 2 Samuel (Waco: Word, 1989), pp. 122–123.


Peter Craigie, Psalms 1–50, (Waco: Word, 1983), p. 67.


Lanny Bell, “Luxor Temple and the Cult of the Royal Ka,” Journal of Near Eastern Studies 44 (1985), pp. 258, 267.


Keith Whitelam, “King and Kingship,” in The Anchor Bible Dictionary (New York: Doubleday, 1992), vol. 4, pp. 45–46.


Gauthier, Livre des Rois, vol. 4, pp. 2–64.


Gauthier, Livre des Rois, vol. 4, pp. 200–422.


Gauthier, Livre des Rois, vol. 5.


Donald Redford, “The Concept of Kingship During the Eighteenth Dynasty,” in Ancient Egyptian Kingship, David O’Connor and David Silverman (Leiden: Brill, 1995), 2 vols., pp. 157–159.


Rudolph Bultmann, Theology of the New Testament, 2 vols. (New York: Scribners, 1951–1955), vol. 1, pp. 128–129; Martin Hengel, The Son of God (London: SCM, 1976), pp. 21–56.


For different reasons, this suggestion is found in Oscar Cullman, Christology of the New Testament (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1963), pp. 272–275; James D.G. Dunn, Christology in the Making (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1980), pp. 12–64; Gerald O’Collins, Christology: A Biblical, Historical, and Systematic Study of Jesus (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1995), pp. 113–135.


H. Idris Bell, Cults & Creeds in Graeco-Roman Egypt (Liverpool: Liverpool Univ. Press, 1957), pp. 78–105.