The Christian Apocrypha
Preserved in art By David R. Cartlidge

Gazing in adoration at the newborn Jesus, three shepherds join Joseph and Mary in the manger in an early-15th-century painting of The Nativity, attributed to the Netherlandish artist Robert Campin. Outside the rustic shed appear two women, the midwives who attended Jesus’ birth. Midwives! What are they doing in the picture? The Bible does […]

The Biblical Minimalists
Expunging ancient Israel’s past By Hershel Shanks

An increasingly modish—virulent?—strain of biblical scholarship concludes that the Bible is useless for reconstructing the history of ancient Israel. If this history can be reconstructed at all, it must be based solely on archaeological evidence as interpreted by anthropological models. A recent extension—criticism, really—of this thinking argues that the attempt to locate ancient Israel […]

Gospels in the Classroom
Where the Bible’s just a good book By Paul Q. Beeching

Every other spring for the last dozen years I have taught an undergraduate course: English 361The Bible as Literature: New TestamentSpring Semester. 3 hrs

Son of God
From Pharaoh to Israel’s kings to Jesus By James K. Hoffmeier

I am your son,” the pharaoh says to the Egyptian sun god Re in an Old Kingdom pyramid text (c. 2300 B.C.).1 From an early period, Egyptian pharaohs were regarded as divine, the offspring of gods. Did this influence Hebrew understanding of kingship? And did it, either directly or indirectly, through Hebrew mediation, affect […]


The Bible: Word of God in Human Words
The Greek word synkatabasis refers to God’s “stooping” to meet human beings at their own level, just as a parent gets down on the floor and “lisps” to a child. By Bernhard W. Anderson
Good News for a Pagan World
Those who explain Paul as a Hellenizer are swimming against the tide. The arguments for his essential Jewishness are overwhelming. By N. T. Wright