Yigael Yadin, The Temple Scroll (Jerusalem, 1977) in three volumes and a fascicle of supplementary plates. Also published in an English edition (1983) under the same title.


Strabo, Geography 78, 16.4.26, end.


Avraham Negev, “The Staircase-Tower in Nabataean Architecture,” Revue Biblique 80 (1973), pp. 364–382.


See Martin Price and Bluma Trell, Coins and Their Cities (London, 1977).


Joseph Lightfoot in St. Paul’s Epistles to the Colossians and to Philemon, 2nd ed. (London, 1879). Note 2 on p. 87 shows by numerous classical parallels that “the god” here means “the sun god.”


Arthur Cowley, Aramaic Papyri of the Fifth Century B.C. (Oxford University Press, 1923), pp. 204–248.


For the archaeological evidence for Syria, Transjordan and Palestine see Henri Seyrig, “Antiquités Syriennes 95, Le Culte du Soleil en Syrie à l’époque Romaine,” Syria 48 (1971), pp. 337–373. Reference has already been made to Nabataean sun worship on the roofs of houses.


Nahman Avigad, “Hotem,” Encyclopaedia Biblica III (1958), pp. 68–86 and plate 3. Further examples may be found in Stanley Cook, The Religion of Ancient Palestine in the Light of Archaeology (London, 1930), pp. 48–52 and plates VI–IX, XII, XIII, XV.


See Saul Lieberman, Hellenism in Jewish Palestine (Texts and Studies of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America 18, 2nd ed. [New York, 1962]), pp. 214–15, supplementing the evidence already given in his Greek in Jewish Palestine (New York, 1942), pp. 137–38.


Hershel Shanks, Judaism in Stone (Washington, 1979), pp. 16, 112–114, 125, 127, 129, 130, 149.


Mordecai Margalioth, ed., Sefer harazim, (Jerusalem, 1966). The directions for sun worship are in the account of the fourth heaven. Margalioth reconstructed the book mainly from fragments found in the genizah of the old synagogue of Cairo. The original was probably about contemporary with the Palestinian synagogue mosaics referred to in the previous endnote.