“Genizah” in Hebrew refers to a storage area where holy books and other Hebrew writings are “hidden away” (GNZ) after they are no longer usable, since discarding them otherwise would be an act of disrespect.


B.C.E. (Before the Common Era) and C.E. (Common Era) are the scholarly alternate designations corresponding to B.C. and A.D.


The Mishnah and the Talmud are the source of traditional Jewish law, which took shape in the centuries following the Roman conquest of Jerusalem and the destruction of the Temple in 70 C.E. The Talmud is thus considerably later than the Qumran texts, such as MMT.



See Louis Ginzberg. “Eine unbekannte judische Sekte,” originally published in Monatsschrift für die Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Judentums 55–58 (1911–1914), and later privately published as a book in 1922. Ginzberg expected to publish additional material, but when World War II came he forswore publishing in German. As a result, only with the appearance of the English edition, An Unknown Jewish Sect (New York: Jewish Theological Seminary, 1976), was his full study published.


Megillat Ha-Migdash, 3 vols. (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society (IES), 1977); The Temple Scroll, 3 vols. (Jerusalem: IES, 1983); and the more popularly Written The Temple Scroll, The Hidden Law of the Dead Sea Sect (New York: Random House, 1985). See also Yigael Yadin, “The Temple Scroll—The Longest and Most Recently Discovered Dead Sea Scroll,” BAR 10:05 and Jacob Milgrom’s review of The Temple Scroll in Books in Brief, BAR 10:05. See also Lawrence Schiffman, review of Yadin’s The Temple Scroll: The Hidden Law of the Dead Sea Sect in Books in Brief, BAR 11:04.


J.T. Milik, The Books of Enoch, Aramaic Fragments from Qumran Cave (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976).


Maurice Baillet, Qumran grotte 4, III (4Q482–4Q520), Discoveries in the Judaean Desert VII (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1982).


Solomon Zeitlin, The Zadokite Fragments, Jewish Quarterly Review Monograph series (Philadelphia: Dropsie College, 1952).


E.L. Sukenik, Megillot Genuzot, Seqirah Rishonah (Jerusalem: Mossad Bialik, 1948).


Frank M. Cross, The Ancient Library of Qumran and Modern Biblical Studies (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1958); Millar Burrows, The Dead Sea Scrolls (New York: Viking, 1956), and More Light on the Dead Sea Scrolls (London: Secker and Warburg, 1958); and André Dupont-Sommer, Les ecrits esseniens decouverts pres de la Mer Morte (Paris: Payot, 1959).


The site was excavated in 1953–1956. Preliminary reports appeared in Revue Biblique 61–63 (1954–1956). The survey volume was first published in French in 1961 and then revised as Roland de Vaux, Archaeology and the Dead Sea Scrolls (London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1973).


Under the sponsorship of the Hagop Kevorkian Center for Near Eastern Studies. The conference volume was published under the title Archaeology and History in the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman, Journal for the Study of the Old Testament Supplement Series 8 and JSOT/ASOR Monographs 2 (Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Academic Press, 1990). Subsequent conferences were held at London and Manchester (England), Mogilany (Poland), Israel, Groningen (the Netherlands) and again at Mogilany, all of which have generated volumes of the papers presented.


Elisha Qimron and John strugnell, “An Unpublished Halakhic letter from Qumran,” in Biblical Archaeology Today, ed. Janet Amitai (Jerusalem: IES, 1985), pp. 400–407, and (a different article by the same name) Israel Museum Journal 4 (1985), pp. 9–12.


See Schiffman, “The Temple Scroll and the Systems of Jewish Law in the Second Temple Period,” in Temple Scroll Studies, ed. George J. Brooke (Sheffield, UK: JSOT Press, 1989), pp. 239–255. Three more articles by me are in press: “Miqsat Ma’aseh ha-Torah and the Temple Scroll,” to appear in the proceedings of the Groningen Conference in Revue de Qumran; “The Prohibition of the Skins of Animals in the Temple Scroll and Miqsat Ma’aseh ha-Torah,” Proceedings of the Tenth World Congress of Jewish Studies; and “The New Halakhic Letter (4QMMT) and the Origins of the Dead Sea Sect,” to appear in Folia Orientalia in the Proceedings of the 1989 Mogilany Conference.


Pesher Nahum 3–4 i 12; ii 2, 8; iii 5; Pesher Psalms (A) 1–2 ii 17.


Damascus Document 4:19, 8:12, 19:25, 31.


Hodayot 2:15, 32; Pesher Nahum 3–4 i 2, 7; ii 2, 4; iii 3, 7; Damascus Document 1:18.


Jacob Neusner, The Rabbinic Traditions about the Pharisees before 70, 3 vols. (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1971).


Pesher Nahum 3–4 iii 9; iv 1, 3, 6; Pesher Psalms (A) 1–2 ii 17.


Norman Golb, “The Dead Sea Scrolls, A New Perspective,” The American Scholar (Spring 1989), pp. 177–207.


A complete and methodical refutation of the Golb hypothesis is included in Florentino Garcia-Martinez, “A ‘Groningen’ Hypothesis of Qumran Origins and Early History,” to appear in the volume of Revue de Qumran devoted to the Groningen conference proceedings. The ‘Groningen’ hypothesis, however, Will also have to be seriously modified after the publication of MMT.


See Garcia-Martinez, ‘Significado de los Manuscritos de Qumran para el Conocimiento de Jesucristo y del Cristianismo,” Communio 22 (1989), pp. 338–342.


See Shemaryahu Talmon, The World of Qumran from Within (Jerusalem and Leiden: Magnes Press and E. J. Brill, 1989), pp. 71–141.


William F. Albright, “New light on Early Recensions of the Hebrew Bible,” Bulletin of American Schoools of Oriental Research 140 (1955), pp. 27–33.


Cross, “The History of the Biblical Text in light of Discoveries in the Judaean Desert,” Harvard Theological Review 57 (1964), pp. 281–299; Ancient Library, pp. 120–145.


See Emanuel Tov, “A Modern Textual Outlook Based on the Qumran Scrolls,” Hebrew Union College Annual 53 (1982), pp. 11–27; “Hebrew Biblical Manuscripts from the Judaean Desert: Their Contribution to Textual Criticism,” Journal of Jewish Studies 39 (1988), pp. 5–37.