Ariel and Chana Bloch, The Song of Songs: A New Translation (New York: Random House, 1995; repr. Berkeley, CA: Univ. of California Press, 2000). All translations used here, unless otherwise noted, are from this translation, ©2002 The Regents of the University of California.


See the following articles in Biblical Archaeology Review: Lawrence E. Stager, “The Song of Deborah—Why Some Tribes Answered the Call and Others Did Not,” BAR 15:01; and Philip King and Stager, “Of Fathers, Kings and the Deity,” BAR 28:02.


The Masoretic text of the Hebrew Bible is the standard rabbinic textus receptus.



The last of these terms, bo’ ’el, “come into,” might seem to have a certain anatomical concreteness, but the way it is repeatedly used argues that it had become a fixed idiom in biblical usage for a man’s first experience of sexual intimacy with a woman, bearing only a vestigial connection with the physical origins of the expression.