Carey A. Moore, “Judith—The Case of the Pious Killer,” BR 06:01.


The Septuagint includes books that were ultimately excluded from the Jewish canon. These excluded books are the Apocrypha in Jewish and Protestant traditions. However, they retained canonical status in Catholic scripture.


S indicates Sinaiticus; B, Vaticanus; and A, Alexandrinus.



Irene Nowell, “The Book of Tobit: Narrative Technique and Theology,” Ph.D. dissertation, Catholic University of America (Washington, D.C., 1983), p. 203, using Sinaiticus.


See Mordechai A. Friedman, “Tamar, a Symbol of Life: The ‘Killer Wife’ Superstition in the Bible and Jewish Tradition,” Association for Jewish Studies Review 15.1 (1990), pp. 33–35.


J.C. Dancy, The Shorter Books of the Apocrypha (Cambridge: University Press, 1972), p. 39, observes that fish gall was regularly recommended in ancient medical texts to treat leukoma.


William Soll, “Tobit and Folklore Studies, with Emphasis on Propp’s Morphology,” in SBL 1988 Seminar Papers, ed. David J. Lull (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1988), p. 51.


Nowell, “Book of Tobit,” p. 45, suggests that the author might have drawn the reference to Shalmaneser from 2 Kings 17:1–6 and 18:9–13.


Details and discussion in Allen Wikgren, “Tobit,” Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible, 4 vols. (Nashville, TN: Abingdon, 1962), vol. 4, p. 660; Dancy, Shorter Books, p. 35; Frank Zimmermann, The Book of Tobit (New York: Harper & Bros., 1958), pp. 15–16.


R.H. Pfeiffer, History of New Testament Times With an Introduction to the Apocrypha (New York: Harper & Bros., 1949), p. 266: “The prescription that daughters who must inherit their father’s estate because they have no brothers must marry within their tribe (Numbers 7:1–11, 36) seems to be understood in 6:12(Greek 6:13), in the sense that a father who fails to give his daughter (who will inherit from him) to her next of kin is guilty of a capital offense.” See also B. Bow and George W.E. Nickelsburg, “Patriarchy with a Twist: Men and Women in Tobit,” in “Women Like This:New Perspectives on Jewish Women in the Greco-Roman World, ed. Amy-Jill Levine, EJL 1 (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1991), p. 141.


In 3:8 by the narrator; 3:8–9, by the maids; 3:15 in Sarah’s prayer; 6:14–15 in Tobias’ comments; and 7:11 in Raguel’s note. This list, with commentary, appears in Nowell, “Book of Tobit,” pp. 100–101. See Ronald S. Hendel, “When the Sons of God Cavorted with the Daughters of Men,” BR 03:02.


These consequences are fully described in 1 Enoch 6–11, the account of the fall of the watchers (i.e., those angels entrusted with the task of protecting mankind).


Nowell, “Book of Tobit,” p. 191.


See the more extended discussion in Bow and Nickelsburg, “Patriarchy with a Twist.”


Such may be a recurring theme in one set of Jewish-Hellenistic documents, because of her husband’s unexplained illness, Job’s wife in the Pseudepigraphal Testament of Job finds herself in the same position as Anna. See Nowell, “Book of Tobit,” p. 114, n. 20, and Paul Deselaers, Das Buch Tobit (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, 1982), p. 378. On Ben Sira, see Claudia V. Camp, “Understanding a Patriarchy: Women in Second Century Jerusalem Through the Eyes of Ben Sira,” in Levine, ‘Women Like This,’ esp. pp. 26–33.


Bow and Nickelsburg, “Patriarchy with a Twist,” p. 138.


Nowell, “Book of Tobit,” pp. 108–109, n. 5. Tobit and Tobias derive from the Hebrew for “the Lord is my good”; Raguel is from “friend of God” (the name is shared with Moses’ father-in-law [Exodus 2:18; Numbers, 10:29] and is the name of an archangel in 1 Enoch 20:4, cf. 23:4); Raphael is from “God heals”; and Azariah is from “God has helped.”


A. Neubauer’s Aramaic ms. and the Münster text or HM (cf. also Shabbat 110a) declare that the heart and liver are to be burned under Sarah’s clothes; see Zimmermann, Book of Tobit, p. 85. This reading strengthens the connections among the organs, the heat, and fertility/insemination; see Wikgren, “Tobit,” p. 659. The Oneirocritica of Artemidorus (1.44) connects the heart with marriage and the liver with the production of male/female relationships, in The Interpretation of Dreams, transl. and commentary by Robert J. White (Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Press, 1975), p. 38. I thank Derek Krueger for this reference.


Zimmerman (Book of Tobit, pp. 9–11, 80) suggests that the heart and liver once served separate functions and notes that several versions drop the reference to the liver.


See, for example, Aristotle, Generation of Animals 717b24 and 717a5; Plato, Timaeus 69c–72d, 86c.