Because God is asking a question of Jonah, the form leûkaµ (to you) is used rather than the form (to him).


Akkadian is a Semitic language that was written from left to right in syllabic cuneiform. Generally written with a reed stylus on clay tablets, Akkadian was also inscribed on stone monuments and on writing boards made of wood overlayed with a thin layer of wax. Native to Mesopotamia, Akkadian became an international language of diplomacy, trade, and culture. Hence documents in this language have been recovered from archaeological sites throughout the Middle East including Egypt, Syria, Israel, Turkey, and Iran as well as Iraq. The oldest documents found in Akkadian were written during the third millennium B.C.; the most modern documents belong to the New Testament period.


Targum literally means “translation.” The term generally designates a Jewish or Samaritan translation of the Scriptures into Aramaic. Aramaic, a language closely related to Hebrew, was a major international language in the Middle East from the middle of the eighth century B.C. until the seventh century A.D. Translations of the Hebrew Scriptures into Aramaic were composed from Second Temple times into the Middle Ages. In some Jewish communities the Targums are employed liturgically to this day.



D. Stanley Jones, “The Biological Origin of Love and Hate,” in Feelings and Emotions: the Loyola Symposium, ed. Magda B. Arnold (New York and London, 1970), pp. 27–28.


Karl Abraham, “Notes on the Psycho-Analytical Investigation and Treatment of Manic-Depressive and Allied Conditions,” in The Meaning of Despair, ed. Willard Gaylin, (New York, 1968), pp. 26–49; Sigmund Freud, “Mourning and Melancholia,” in The Meaning of Despair, ed. Willard Gaylin, pp. 50–69.


Otto Fenichel, “Depression and Mania,” in The Meaning of Despair, ed. Willard Gaylin, p. 115.


2d ed., The Torah (Jewish Publication Society Philadelphia, 1967).


Edward Bibring, “The Mechanism of Depression,” in The Meaning of Despair, ed. Willard Gaylin, p. 179–180.


Myrna M. Weissman, Gerald L. Klerman, and Eugene S. Paykel, “Clinical Evaluation of Hostility in Depression,” American Journal of Psychiatry, N. 128, (1971), P. 265.