The excavations, named The Selz Foundation Hazor Excavations in Memory of Yigael Yadin, are sponsored by the Institute of Archaeology of the Hebrew University and the Israel Exploration Society and take place within the Hazor National Park.


See Hershel Shanks, “When Did Ancient Israel Begin?BAR 38:01; “Part II: The Development of Israelite Religion,Bible Review 08:05; Anson F. Rainey, “Rainey’s Challenge,BAR 17:06.


See Nadav Na’aman, “The Trowel and the Text,BAR 35:01; Carolyn R. Higginbotham, “The Egyptianizing of Canaan,BAR 24:03.



Yohanan Aharoni, The Settlement of the Israelite Tribes in Upper Galilee (Hebrew) (Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1957).


Yigael Yadin, Hazor, The Schweich Lecture Series 1970 (London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1972), p. 109.


J. Allen, “A Hieroglyphic Fragment from Hazor,” Bulletin of the Egyptological Seminar (2001), p. 15. See also Kenneth A. Kitchen, “An Egyptian inscribed Fragment from Late Bronze Age Hazor,” Israel Exploration Journal 53 (2003), p. 24.


Amnon Ben-Tor, “The Sad Fate of Statues of Hazor,” in Seymour Gitin, George E. Wright and J.P. Desel, eds., Confronting the Past: Archaeological and Historical Essays on Ancient Israel in Honor of William, G. Dever (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2006), pp. 3–16.


Chr. Schäfer-Lichtenberger, “Hazor—A City Between the Major Powers,” Scandinavian Journal of Old Testament 16 (2001), pp. 104–122.


Kenneth A. Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions Translated & Annotated, vol. II (London: Blackwell, 1996), pp. 13–14, 20–21, map 11. The same description of the route usually taken by the Egyptians has also been defined by H. Jacob Katzenstein, The History of Tyre from the Beginning of the Second Millennium B.C.E. Until the Fall of the Neo-Babylonian Empire in 538 B.C.E. (Jerusalem: Shocken Institute, 1973), p. 53.


Volkmar Fritz, “Das Ende der Spätbronzezeitlische Stadt Hazor Stratum XIII und die Biblische Überlieferung in Josua 11 und Ricter 4, ” Ugarit Forschungen, vol. 5 (1973), pp. 123–139.


Sharon Zuckerman, “Anatomy of a Destruction: Crisis Architecture, Termination Rituals and the Fall of Canaanite Hazor,” Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 20 (2007) pp. 3–32.


Sharon Zuckerman, “Anatomy of a Destruction,” p. 3.


George E. Mendenhall, The Tenth Generation, the Origins of the Biblical Tradition (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 1973).


Sharon Zuckerman, “The Lower City of Hazor (Notes and News),” Israel Exploration Journal 58 (2008), pp. 234–236.


Yadin’s conclusion that “the end of stratum IA [in Areas C and F] came about as a result of fire, as indicated by the ashes found in the less exposed areas excavated in Areas H and K,” speaks for itself. Yadin, Hazor, The Schweich Series, p. 37.


Yigael Yadin et al., Hazor vol. II (Jerusalem, 1960), pp. 49–50, 58, 63; Yadin et al. in Amnon Ben-Tor and S. Geva, eds., Hazor, vol. III–IV, 1957–1958, Text (Jerusalem: IES, 1989), pp. 105–111.


Amnon Ben-Tor, Doron Ben-Ami, D. Sandhaus, Hazor: 1990–2009, vol. VI (Jerusalem: IES, Hebrew Univ., 2012), pp. 306–344.


Nadav Na’aman, “Hazor in the Fourteenth-Thirteenth Centuries B.C.E., in the Light of Historical and Archaeological Research,” Eretz Israel vol. 30 (Jerusalem 2011), p. 337.


Yohanan Aharoni, The Archaeology of the Land of Israel (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1982), p. 178; M. Weippert, The Settlement of the Israelite Tribes in Palestine (London: Allenson-Breckinridge, 1971), p. 135; Yigael Yadin, “The Transition from a Semi-Nomadic to a Sedentary Society in the Twelfth Century B.C.E.,” in Frank M. Cross, ed., Symposia, Celebrating the Seventy-Fifth Anniversary of the Founding of the American Schools of Oriental Research, 1900–1975 (Cambridge, MA: ASOR, 1979), pp. 57–68.


“In short, in the case of Jericho and ‘Ai one may speak of aetiological traditions, while in the case of Hazor one may not.” Martin Noth, “Der Beitrag der Archäologie zur Geschichte Israels,” Supplements to the Vetus Testamentum vol. 7 (1959), p. 275.


Yadin, “The Transition from a Semi-Nomadic to a Sedentary Society in the Twelfth Century B.C.E.,” p. 66. As Frank Cross has observed: “I find it bemusing that given the widespread evidence of destruction in Canaan at the end of the Late Bronze Age and the beginning of the Iron Age, some scholars are inclined to attribute the violence to various peoples, to almost anyone—except Israel.” As Cross also notes: “Nomads are not merely pastoralists but also warriors.” (Frank Moore Cross, From Epic to Canon [Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1998], p. 70.)


J. Pritchard, ed., Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1955), pp. 376–378; M.G. Hasel, “Israel in the Merneptah Stela,” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 206 (1994), pp. 45–61.


Abraham Malamat, “Israelite Conduct of War in the Conquest of Canaan According to the Biblical Tradition,” in Cross, ed., Symposia, pp. 35–55.


Yigael Yadin et al., Hazor vol. III–IV, pp. 170, 264, 297; Amnon Ben-Tor, R. Bonfil and Alan Paris, eds., Hazor, 1968, vol. V (Jerusalem: IES, Hebrew Univ., 1997), p. 382.


A. Ward and M. Sharp-Joukowsky, eds., The Crisis Years: The 12th Century B.C. (Dubuque: Kendall/Hunt, 1992).