For a fully documented history of the discovery of the Moabite Stone, see Siegfried H. Horn, “The Discovery of the Moabite Stone,” in Carol L. Meyers and M. O’Connor, eds., The Word of the Lord Shall Go Forth: Essays in Honor of David Noel Freedman (Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1983), pp. 497–505.


All regnal dates for the kings of Israel and Judah are presented here according to Edwin R. Thiele’s The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, 3rd ed. (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1983). Some scholars using alternate chronological schemes have come to slightly different dates than those of Thiele’s system. For example, John Bright, using William F. Albright’s chronology (Bulletin of American Schools for Oriental Research 100 [December 1945], pp. 16–22), in his A History of Israel, 2nd ed. (Philadelphia, 1972), unnumbered pages after p. 474, dates the accession of Ahaziah of Israel to 850 B.C. instead of 853 B.C. and the date of Jehoshaphat’s death to 849 B.C. instead of 848 B.C. as presented here.


Some commentators, however, consider Jehoshaphat’s name a later addition and believe that the king of Judah who participated in the Moabite campaign was Jehoshaphat’s son Jehoram, a namesake, and also brother-in-law, of the king of Israel. See, for example, The Jerusalem Bible (New York, 1966), p. 457, note c.


For a translation of the Assyrian record of the battle of Qarqar in which King Ahab of Israel participated, see James B. Pritchard, ed., Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament (Princeton, New Jersey, 1950), pp. 178–279.


See James A. Montgomery and Henry S. Gehman’s summary of the scholarly discussion on this subject in their Commentary on the Books of Kings (New York, 1951), pp. 363–364.


Sylvester J. Saller and Bellarmino Bagatti, The Town of Nebo (Jerusalem, 1949).


Yohanan Aharoni, “Arad,” in Michael Avi-Yonah, ed., Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land, I (Jerusalem, 1975), pp. 85–87.


Ze’ev Meshel, “Did Yahweh Have a Consort?” BAR 05:02; Meshel and Meyers, “The Name of God in the Wilderness of Zin,” Biblical Archaeologist 39 (1976), pp. 6–10.


John Gray, “The Desert God ‘Attr in the Literature and Religion of Canaan,” Journal of Near Eastern Studies 8 (1949), pp. 72–83.


Albert T. Olmstead, History of Palestine and Syria (New York, 1931), pp. 389–393. A similar view is held by Anton Jirku, Altorientalischer Kommentar zum Alten Testament (Leipzig, 1923), p. 163.


Montgomery and Gehman, Commentary on Books of Kings, pp. 358–359. They refer also to the works of Rudolf Kittel, Eduard Meyer and Mark Lidzbarski as other commentators who agree with this view.