1. See Chris McKinny et al., “The Millo: Jerusalem’s Lost Monument,” BAR, Fall 2023.

2. Yigal Levin, “Did Pharaoh Sheshonq Attack Jerusalem?” BAR, July/August 2012.


1. EA 4 in The Amarna Letters, William L. Moran, trans. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1992), pp. 8–9.

2. Abraham Malamat, “The Kingdom of David and Solomon in Its Contact with Egypt and Aram Naharaim,” Biblical Archaeologist 21.4 (1958), p. 98.

3. William G. Dever, “Solomon, Scripture, and Science: The Rise of the Judahite State in the 10th Century BCE,” Jerusalem Journal of Archaeology 1 (2021), pp. 102–125.