Fourth century C.E.

Emperor Constantine becomes sole ruler of Rome in 324 and grants Christianity favored status in the Empire. Palestine and above all Jerusalem take on increasing sanctity. The city is favored by pilgrims and monastics, and a number of major churches are built, including the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, dedicated by Constantine in 335. The area south of the Temple Mount becomes a Christian neighborhood, with churches, monasteries (including the Monastery of the Virgins, highlighted in this photo of the Temple Mount), shops, workshops and private houses.

Fifth century C.E.

Jerusalem gains patriarchal status, becoming one of the five key ecclesiastical cities in the Byzantine Empire. More churches, monasteries, hospices and hospitals are built, many by the fervent wife of Emperor Theodosius II, Eudocia.

Sixth century C.E.

Byzantine Jerusalem reaches its zenith. Emperor Justinian (527–565) builds numerous churches and other public edifices in a city teeming with pilgrims.

Seventh century C.E.

In 614 C.E. the Persians conquer Jerusalem, burning churches and monasteries and slaughtering thousands of Christian inhabitants. Persians are conquered in turn by Muslim armies in 636–638 C.E.