Jerusalem from the Middle Bronze Age through to the Early Islamic Period (Images by Ravit Nenner-Soriano; timeline by Noa Evron)1

Middle Bronze II to Iron I

18th–11th centuries B.C.E.

500–700 pop.

Early Iron II

10th–mid 8th centuries B.C.E.

2,000 pop.

Late Iron II

Mid 8th–early 6th centuries B.C.E.

6,000–8,000 pop.

Babylonian, Persian and Early Hellenistic

6th–mid 2nd centuries B.C.E.

1,000–3,000 pop.

Late Hellenistic (Hasmonean)

Mid 2nd–mid 1st centuries B.C.E.

8,000 pop.

Early Roman (Herodian)

Mid 1st century B.C.E.–early 1st century C.E.

10,000 pop.

Eve of Roman Destruction

70 C.E.

20,000 pop.

Late Roman

2nd–3rd centuries C.E.

4,000 pop.

Byzantine to Early Islamic

4th–7th centuries C.E.

10,000–15,000 pop.