Dates Events Major Finds
Level I
2nd century B.C. Hellenistic kingdoms established throughout Near East.
4th century B.C. Alexander the Great defeats Darius III at Battle of Issos (333 B.C.).

Persian empire falls.

Solar Shrine

Fortified city wall and gates

6th century B.C. Persian Empire established (Achaemenid dynasty c. 550–331 B.C.) Palace (“The Residency”)
Level II
Early 6th century B.C. Babylonians conquer southern kingdom of Judah (588/86 B.C.).

Lachish destroyed.

Fortified city

City wall and gate

“Lachish letters”

Palace-fort in ruins

Second half of 7th century B.C. Assyrian Empire falls to Babylonians (612 B.C.).
Break in habitation from second half of 7th century B.C. to 701 B.C.
Level III
8th century B.C. Lachish destroyed (701 B.C.) Assyrian siege ramp

Judean counter-ramp

Assyrians conquer northern kingdom of Israel (722 B.C.) Fortified city with two walls; densely populated

Judean palace-fort (C)

Level IV
9th century B.C. Kingdoms of Israel and Judah established.

Rise of Assyrian Empire.

Judean palace-fort (B)

Two city walls and gates

Level V
10th century B.C. Pharaoh Shishak invades Israel (c. 925 B.C.).

Lachish destroyed.

Solomon dies; United Monarchy ends (930 B.C.).

Judean palace-fort (A)
Break in habitation from 11th century B.C. to end of 12th century.
Level VI
12th century B.C. Lachish destroyed by invading Israelites or “Sea Peoples” (second half of 12th century B.C.). Acropolis Temple (Fosse Temple abandoned)

Monumental Public Building

Egyptians control Canaan, including Lachish. Unfortified city
Reign of Pharaoh Ramesses III (c. 1182–1151 B.C.). Ramesses III cartouche
Level VII
13th century B.C. Egyptians control Canaan. Fosse Temple III

Domestic building in unfortified city