Ebla: city in Syria, under excavation since the 1970s. Ebla flourished in the mid-third millennium B.C.E., until its destruction in the 24th century B.C.E.; it was thereafter rebuilt and flourished again until it was destroyed by the command of Teshub, c. 1600 B.C.E.

Hatti: kingdom in central Anatolia, which acquired an empire starting c. 1400 B.C.E.

Hattusa: capital city of Hatti. Hattusa, under excavation since 1906, flourished during the mid-second millennium B.C.E., until its abandonment and destruction c. 1200 B.C.E.

Hittite: Indo-European language spoken in the land of Hatti (but they called this language Neshili)

Hurrian: a language unrelated to the Indo-European and Semitic languages that was widely spoken in the Near East during the Bronze Age and subsequently went extinct

Igingallish: city near present Syrian-Turkish border, somewhere in the vicinity of the Amanus Mountains; it existed in the early second millennium B.C.E.

Kumme: city in upper Mesopotamia (location unknown), hometown of the storm god Teshub

Nineveh: city on the upper Tigris, inhabited from the sixth millennium until its destruction in 612 B.C.E.; it was eventually replaced by nearby Mosul.


Teshub: the storm god (equivalent to Zeus in the Greek-speaking world)

Allani: “the Lady,” goddess of the netherworld

Ishhara: goddess of oaths and marriage


Megi: king of Ebla

Zazalla: son of Fazanigar, Speaker of the senate of Ebla

Purra: leader or representative of the people of Igingallish

Pizigarra of Nineveh: unclear role (due to loss of text), possibly a prophet