(as interpreted by the current expedition)

Present to 1000 A.D. Medieval graves; remains of Israel’s 1948 War of Independence
Post-exilic period
(Babylonian, Persian, Hellenistic)
1st century B.C.–6th century B.C.
Level I: fortified city in main phase; city wall and gate; Residency; Solar Shrine; houses and pits
588/6 B.C. Destruction: Babylonian conquest

Level II: sparsely populated Judean city; city wall and gate; the Lachish letters

Intermediate stage in deserted gate area

701 B.C. Destruction: Assyrian conquest

Level III: densely populated city; same fortifications and rebuilt palace-fort (Palace C)

Level IV: royal Judean fortified city; two city walls and gate; palace-fort (Palace B)

Late 10th century B.C. Level V, Late Phase: Palace A—Rehoboam’s fort (?)
c. 925 B.C. (?) Destruction: Shishak’s campaign (?)

Level V, Earlier Phase: unfortified (?) settlement; cultroom; houses

gap in habitation—site deserted

12th century B.C.
Late Bronze Age III
Destruction: Israelite conquest (?)

Level VI: prosperous, densely populated and unfortified Canaanite city under Egyptian control; Fosse Temple III

14th century B.C.
Late Bronze Age II

Level VII: city of el-Amarna period; Fosse Temple II

Late Bronze Age I mound sparsely populated; Fosse Temple I
16th century B.C.
Middle Bronze Age III

Level VIII: fortified city, glacis and fosse; palace

Middle Bronze Age I–II Mound levels not excavated
Intermediate EB–MB Period Cemetery 2000; settlement outside mound
Early Bronze Age
3rd millennium B.C.
Mound levels not excavated; tombs; caverns; Khirbet Kerak ware
Chalcolithic Period (Ghassulian)
4th millennium B.C.
First settlement on mound
Prehistoric periods Remains in general area of Lachish