A dozen armed gods decorate the rock wall of the outdoor sanctuary at Yazilikaya. Situated less than a mile from Hattuša, Yazilikaya was not used for everyday rituals but was reserved for special ceremonies, such as the New Year festival.

Tudhaliya IV (1237–1209 B.C.E.), one of the most important Hittite kings, is depicted on the wall of a cavern in the shrine at Yazilikaya. He was an effective diplomat who kept the fidelity of his vassal states. His seal impression comes from a diplomatic letter that he wrote to the king of Ugarit. Although the letter was written in cuneiform, the seal was written in Hittite hieroglyphs.