1. We have extensively consulted Ilan Peled of the University of Chicago in connection with this article. Many—but not all—of the ideas in it are his and so is much of the verbiage. We are grateful to Dr. Peled for his assistance. But he is not responsible for the final text. This version includes research by BAS Senior Editor Ellen White.

2. Compare Exodus 3:8, 17; 13:5; 23:23, 28; 33:2; Numbers 13:29; Deuteronomy 7:1; 20:17; Joshua 1:4; 3:10; 9:1; 11:3; 12:8; 24:11; Judges 1:26; 3:5. Hittites are also known from Ezekiel 16:3, 45; Ezra 9:1; Nehemiah 9:8.

3. Compare Solomon, who had a Hittite wife (1 Kings 11).

4. Trevor Bryce, “The Last Days of Hattusa,Archaeology Odyssey 08:01.

5. E.C. Krupp, “Sacred Sex in the Hittite Temple of Yazilikaya,Archaeology Odyssey 03:02.

6. Brian Fagan, “Did Akhenaten’s Monotheism Influence Moses?BAR, July/August 2015; Peter van der Veen, “When Pharaohs Ruled Jerusalem,BAR 39:02; James P. Allen, “Monotheism,Archaeology Odyssey 02:03; Carolyn R. Higginbotham, “The Egyptianizing of Canaan,BAR 24:03.

7. Eric H. Cline, “Warriors of Hatti,Archaeology Odyssey 05:01.

9. Aharon Kempinski, “Hittites in the Bible: What Does Archaeology Say?BAR 05:05.

10. Marian Feldman, “The Iconography of Power,Archaeology Odyssey 05:03.


1. Billie Jean Collins, The Hittites and Their World, (Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2007), pp. 32–33.

2. Collins, The Hittites, p. 33.

3. For a detailed discussion of the language and its decipherment, see Collins, The Hittites, pp. 1–20.

4. Despite its name, the “Poem” is a prose account of the battle, whereas the “Bulletin” is really an extended caption written to accompany the temple reliefs. These two inscriptions are repeated in temples throughout Egypt (e.g., Abydos, Luxor, Karnak and Abu Simbel) and in Papyrus Raifet and Papyrus Sallier III.

5. Nicholas Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt (Oxford: Blackwell Books, 1992), p. 256.


7. See Collins, The Hittites, pp. 197–218.

8. Collins, The Hittites, pp. 205–209, 212–213.