Among the many articles dealing with these inscriptions, often in a problematic way, one can mention: Ephraim Stern, “Pagan Yahwism: The Folk Religion of Ancient Israel,BAR 27:03; “Yahweh and His Asherah: The Debate Continues,” Sidebar to Uzi Avner, “Sacred Stones in the Desert,BAR 27:03; André Lemaire, “Who or What Was Yahweh’s Asherah?BAR 10:06; Ze’ev Meshel, “Did Yahweh Have a Consort?BAR 05:02.


See Stephen Goranson, “7 vs 8: The Battle Over the Holy Day at Dura-Europos,Bible Review 12:04


See Philip J. King, “Circumcision: Who Did It, Who Didn’t and Why,BAR 32:04.



Karel Jongeling, Handbook of Neo-Punic Inscriptions (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2008), p. 116, no. 64, line 2.


Hebrew ’rgwt is a metathetic variant of ’grwt, “renting.”


Exodus 34:13; Deuteronomy 7:5, 12:3; 1 Kings 14:15, 23, 16:33; 2 Kings 13:6, 17:10, 23:14; Isaiah 17:8, 27:9; Jeremiah 17:2; Micah 5:13; 2 Chronicles 14:2, 17:6, 24:18, 31:1, 33:19, 34:4, 7.


The feminine plural ending is found in Judges 3:7, where it is a scribal error, then in 2 Chronicles 19:3, 33:3; Temple Scroll (11Q19) 51:20; Mishnah Abodah Zarah 3:7; Tosefta Abodah Zarah 6:8. In Judges 3:7, a few Hebrew manuscripts and the Vulgate, based on a manuscript from the fourth century C.E. or earlier, read Ashtoreth, like in the parallel passages of Judges 10:6; 1 Samuel 7:4, 12:10. No corresponding Qumran text is preserved.


Judges 6:25, 26, 28, 30; 1 Kings 18:19, 2 Kings 18:4, 21:7, 23:6; Tosefta Abodah Zarah 6:9.


Pertinent Biblical texts are analyzed by Edward Lipiński, “The Goddess Athirat in Ancient Arabia, in Babylon, and in Ugarit,” Orientalia Lovaniensia Periodica 3 (1972), pp. 101–119, esp. 114, and in a concise but updated way in “Athirat,” Lindsay Jones, ed., Encyclopedia of Religion, vol. 1, 2nd ed. (Detroit: Macmillan, 2005), pp. 589–592. My latest synthesis on the subject, “Cult Prostitution and Passage Rites in the Biblical World,” appeared in The Biblical Annals 3 (2013), pp. 9–25.


Geography 6.2.6.


Library of History 4.83.4.


He applies the term hierodouloi also to the harlots of Corinth (Geography 8.6.20), although cult prostitution was unknown in Greece.


Corpus Inscriptionum Semiticasum, vol. 1, no. 3776.


This is recorded in the first century C.E. by Valerius Maximus in his Memorable Doings and Sayings 2.6.15.


The inscription with a translation and a commentary can be found in John C.L. Gibson, Textbook of Syrian Semitic Inscriptions, vol. 3: Phoenician Inscriptions (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1982), no. 42.


Giovanni Colonna, “Novità sui culti di Pyrgi,” Rendiconti della Pontificia Accademia Romana di Archeologia 57 (1984–1985), pp. 57–88; Giovanni Colonna, Santuari d’Etruria (Milano: Electa, 1985), p. 128.


Friedrich Marx, C. Lucilii Carminum reliquiae (Leipzig: B.G. Teubner, 1904–1905), fig. 1271.


These are rooms 4, 5, 37, 38, 43 ff. in the plan of fig. 42 in Michael I. Rostovtzeff, Frank E. Brown and Charles B. Welles, eds., The Excavations at Dura-Europos. Preliminary Report of the Seventh and Eighth Seasons of Work, 1933–1934 and 1934–1935 (New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press, 1939), and reproduced on p. 54.


Rostovtzeff et al., Excavations at Dura-Europos, pp. 156–157.


Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, vol. 8, no. 25006.


James B. Pritchard, The Ancient Near East in Pictures (Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press, 1969), no. 629.


James B. Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts (ANET) (Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press, 1969), p. 326.


Jean Capart, Une rue de tombeaux à Sakkarah (Brussels: Vromant, 1907), vol. 2, pl. LXVII; W. Wreszinski, Atlas zur altägyptischen Kulturgeschichte (Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs, 1936), pt. 3, pp. 25–26; ANET, p. 326, note 2.


Baldwin Spencer and Francis J. Gillen, The Native Tribes of Central Australia (London: Macmillan, 1904), pp. 94ff.; Theodor Reik, Probleme der Religionspsychologie (Leipzig: Internationaler Psychoanalytischer Verlag, 1919); Ernest Crawley, The Mystic Rose: A Study of Primitive Marriage, vol. 1, new ed. by Theodore Besterman (London: Methuen, 1927), pp. 168ff.; Arnold van Gennep, Rites de passage (reprinted Paris: Picard, 1992), pp. 48–49. A summary presentation is provided by Gerardus van der Leeuw, La religion dans son essence et ses manifestations (Paris: Payot, 1955), p. 225.


Raymond D. Jameson, “Jus primae noctis or droit du seigneur,” in Standard Dictionary of Folklore, vol. 1 (New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1950); Karl Schmidt, Jus primae noctis: Eine geschichtliche Untersuchung (Freiburg im Breisgau: Herder, 1881); Karl Schmidt, “Der Streit über das jus primae noctis,” Zeitschrift für Ethnologie 16 (1884), pp. 18–59; Wilhelm Schmidt-Bleibtreu, Jus primae noctis im Widerstreit der Meinungen: Eine historische Untersuchung über das Herrenrecht der ersten Nacht (Bonn: Röhrscheid, 1988); Jörg Wettlaufer, Das Herrenrecht der ersten Nacht: Hochzeit, Herrschaft und Heiratszins im Mittelalter und in der frühen Neuzeit, Historische Forschungen 24 (Frankfurt: Campus, 1999).


Michel Tanret and Karel Van Lerberghe, “Rituals and Profits in the Ur-Utu Archive,” in J. Quaegebeur, ed., Ritual and Sacrifice in the Ancient Near East, OLA 55 (Leuven: Peeters, 1993), pp. 435–449, esp. 438–443.


History 1.199; Jerrold Cooper, “Prostitution,” in Reallexikon der Assyriologie, vol. 11 (Berlin: de Gruyter, 2006), p. 19.


Harold W. Attridge and Robert A. Oden, eds., The Syrian Goddess (De Dea Syria) Attributed to Lucian (Missoula, MT: Scholars Press, 1976), pp. 12–15.