See Robert L. MacLennan, “In Search of the Jewish Diaspora,” BAR 22:02



Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 13.318. All citations to Josephus are to the Loeb Classical Library edition (Harvard Univ. Press).


On Iturea and Itureans, see A. H. M. Jones, “The Urbanization of the Iturean Principality,” Journal of Roman Studies 21 (1931), pp. 265–275, and W. Schottroff, “Die Ituräer,” Zeitschrift des deutschen Palästina-Vereins 98 (1982), pp. 125–152.


See Strabo, Geography 16.2.18, and Josephus, Antiquities 15.344.


Antiquities 15.366.


Antiquities 15.339.


Antiquities 15.298.


Cited in note 13, below.


Antiquities 15.363.


The Jewish War 1.404.


Antiquities 15.363.


The Jewish War 1.404.


The Macalester College excavations are supported by Macalester President Michael McPherson and Provost Dan Hornbach, along with numerous individuals and foundations. The Omrit team would like in particular to thank Eugene and Emily Grant for their support and encouragement. The excavations are under the direction of Andrew Overman. Jack Olive is associate director and field director. Michael Nelson is the excavation architect. Gary Lindstrom and Dan Schowalter are assistant directors, and Nanette Goldman is the educational coordinator. Gaby Mazor, director of the Bet She’an Archaeological Project, is the consultant for preservation and reconstruction. Deby Sandhouse is the ceramicist and Danny Sion is the numismatist. Thanks to all the staff, students and volunteers who have made the last four seasons at Omrit so very productive, and to Greta Tal and the wonderful people at Kibbutz Kfar Szold who take such good care of our excavation team each summer. We would also like to thank Ms. Herta Pitman for her help on this article.


In the case of the Augusteum at Pola in Croatia see G. Fischer, Das rÖmische Pola: Eine archäologische Stadtgeschichte (Munich: Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1996). At Nîmes see the still very helpful survey by J. Ch. Balty, études sur la Maison Carrée de Nîmes (Bruxelles-Bercham: Latomus/Revue d’études Latine, 1960) especially p. 66 and following and R. Amy and P. Gros, La Maison Carrée de Nîmes (Paris, 1979). Concerning the temple to Augustus at Samaria-Sebaste, see John Crowfoot, Kathleen Kenyon and Eliezer Sukenik, Samaria-Sebaste I: The Buildings (London: Palestinian Exploration Fund, 1942), pp. 123–132 and Dan Barag, “King Herod’s Royal Castle at Samaria-Sebaste,” Palestinian Exploration Quarterly 125 (1993), pp. 4–8, and the article by David Jacobson, “Herod’s Roman Temple,” in BAR 28:02. For the temple to Roma-Augustus at Caesarea, see Ken Holum, “The Temple Platform: Progress Report on the Excavations,” in Caesarea Papers II, edited by Ken Holum, Avner Raban and Joseph Patrich, Journal of Roman Archaeology (JRA) Supplement Series 35 (Portsmouth, RI: JRA, 1999), pp. 13–40. For the Augusteum at Pompeii known as the Aedes Fortunae Augustae, consult L. Richardson, Pompeii: An Architectural History (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1988), pp. 202–205.


Ya’akov Meshorer, The Coins of Eretz Israel (Jerusalem: Hebrew University, 1982), plates 7–8.


Zvi Maoz, “Banias, Temple of Pan—1989,” Excavations and Surveys in Israel 9 (1989–1990), p. 85. In volume 10 (1991), p. 59, the excavator asserts more boldly that this is “the temple of Augustus whose construction is attributed to Herod.” By volume 13 (1993), p. 2, this is “the temple built by Herod.”


Maoz, “Banias, Temple of Pan—1991/1992,” Excavations and Surveys in Israel 13 (1993), p. 2. Compare the Augusteum forms in Samaria, Caesarea, Asia Minor, the Balkans or Italy; all have a single entrance and stairway.


Andrea Berlin, “The Archaeology of Ritual: The Sanctuary of Pan at Banias/Caesarea Philippi,” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 315 (1999), pp. 27–45.


The importance of this region in Augustan policy has been highlighted by Fergus Millar in The Roman Near East (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1993), pp. 27 and following.


John Wilson, “The Augusteum at Caesarea Philippi,” a presentation given at the annual meeting of ASOR in Nashville, November 2001. The authors wish to thank Dr. Wilson for sharing his insights into Banias and Herod’s northern Augusteum with us. See also Vassilios Tzaferis, “The ‘God who is in Dan’ and the Cult of Pan at Banias in the Hellenistic and Roman Periods,” Eretz-Israel 23 (1992), p. 134. Zvi Maoz’s instincts were certainly correct when he wrote earlier in the excavations of Area A that this was “a corridor or passage 10m wide, bordered by two walls, perpendicular to the cliff,” in Excavations and Surveys in Israel 9 (1989–90), p. 85.


The most celebrated and oft-quoted reference in Josephus concerning Herod’s northern temple to Augustus is Antiquities 15.363, where he says that the temple was built “near,” or “in the region,” (the Greek term is plaµsion) of Banias. Josephus uses a similar construction in Antiquities 15.360 when he talks about Paneas and “the country around it” (peri choran). A similar linguistic distinction can be seen in Josephus when speaking about Paneas in The Jewish War 2.168 and Antiquities 18.28.