James D. Muhly, “How Iron Technology Changed the Ancient World,” BAR, November/December 1982.


The United Monarchy of early Israel had split into the northern kingdom of Israel and the southern kingdom of Judah (consisting of the tribes of Judah and Benjamin) after the death of King Solomon.



Trude Dothan, The Philistines and Their Material Culture (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1982), pp. 15–18.


Seymour Gitin, “Philistia in Transition: The Tenth Century B.C.E. and Beyond,” in Seymour Gitin, Amihai Mazar and Ephraim Stern, eds., Mediterranean Peoples in Transition: Thirteenth to Early Tenth Centuries B.C.E. (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1998), p. 163.


This is a joint project of the W. F. Albright Institute of Archaeological Research, Jerusalem, and the Berman Center for Biblical Archaeology of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.


JoAnn Hackett, “Canaanites,” in Eric M. Meyers, ed., Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1997), p. 410.


Mariusz Burdajewicz, The Aegean Sea Peoples and Religious Architecture in the Eastern Mediterranean at the Close of the Late Bronze Age, BAR International Series 558 (Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, 1990), pp. 1–23.


Susan Sherrat, “Surviving the Collapse: The Oikos and Structural Continuity between Late Bronze Age and Later Greece,” in Gitin et al., Mediterranean Peoples in Transition, pp. 293, 307.


Sabatino Moscati, The World of the Phoenicians (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1968), pp. 3–7.


Sandro F. Bondi, “The Course of History,” in Sabatino Moscati, ed., The Phoenicians (Milan: Bompiana, 1988), pp. 41–44.


Giovanni Garbini, “The Question of the Alphabet,” in Moscati, The Phoenicians, p. 86.


Israel Finkelstein, “The Great Transformation: The ‘Conquest’ of the Highlands Frontiers and the Rise of Territorial States,” in Thomas E. Levy, ed., The Archaeology of Society in the Holy Land (New York: Facts on File, 1995), pp. 361–362.


Michal G. Hasel, Domination and Resistance: Egyptian Military Activity in the Southern Levant, 1300–1185 B.C. (Leiden: Brill, 1998), pp. 178–181.


Finkelstein, The Archaeology of the Israelite Settlement (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1988), pp. 352–56.


Amihai Mazar, “Iron Age Chronology: A Reply to I. Finkelstein,” Levant 29 (1997), p. 157.


John Bright, A History of Israel (London, SCM Press, 1972), pp. 169, 180.


Tristan J. Barako, “The Philistine Settlement as Mercantile Phenomenon?” American Journal of Archaeology 104 (2000), p. 526.


Dothan, “Bronze and Iron Objects with Cultic Connotations from Philistine Temple Building 350 at Ekron,” Israel Exploration Journal (IEJ) 52, no. 1 (2002), pp. 14–23.


Dothan, “Initial Philistine Settlement: From Migration to Coexistence,” in Gitin et al., Mediterranean Peoples in Transition, pp. 148–149, 154–159.


Bustanay Oded, “Neighbors on the West,” in Avraham Malamat, ed., World History of the Jewish People 4.1 (Jerusalem: Massada, 1979), p. 236.


Gitin, “Philistia in Transition,” p. 163.


Gitin, “Philistia in Transition” p. 167.


Gitin, “The Neo-Assyrian Empire and its Western Periphery: The Levant, with a Focus on Philistine Ekron,” in Simo Parpola and Robert M. Whiting, eds., Assyria 1995. Proceedings of the 10th Anniversary Symposium of the Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project, Helsinki, 1995 (Helsinki: Univ. of Helsinki, 1997), pp. 87–103.


Gitin, “The Philistines in the Prophetic Texts,” pp. 273–290 in Jodi Magness and Seymour Gitin, eds., Hesed ve-Emet (Studies in Honor of Ernest S. Frerichs) (Brown Judaic Series No. 320. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1988), p. 278.


Gitin, “Seventh Century B.C.E. Cultic Elements at Ekron,” in Avraham Biran and Joseph Aviram, eds., Biblical Archaeology Today, 1990. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Biblical Archaeology, Jerusalem (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, Israel Academy of Sciences, 1993), pp. 250, 251, 257, n. 37.


Gitin, “Neo-Assyrian and Egyptian Hegemony over Ekron in the Seventh Century B.C.E.: A Response to Lawrence E. Stager,” in Israel Eph’al, Amnon Ben Tor and Peter Machinist, eds., Eretz Israel 27 (Hayim and Miriam Tadmor Volume), (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 2003), p. 59, n. 3.


Gitin, “Israelite and Philistine Cult and the Archaeological Record in Iron Age II: The ‘Smoking Gun’ Phenomenon,” in William G. Dever and Seymour Gitin, eds., Symbiosis, Symbolism, and the Power of the Past, Canaan, Ancient Israel and Their Neighbors from the Late Bronze Age through Roman Palaestine” (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2003), p. 287.


Gitin and Mordechai Cogan, “A New Type of Dedicatory Inscription from Ekron,” IEJ 49 (1999), pp. 196–198.


Gitin, “Neo-Assyrian and Egyptian Hegemony” p. *59 (English section), n. 6.


Gitin, Dothan and Joseph Naveh, “A Royal Dedicatory Inscription from Ekron,” IEJ 47, nos. 1–2 (1997), pp. 8–11.


Christa Schäfer-Lichtenberger, “The Goddess of Ekron and the Religious-Cultural Background of the Philistines,” IEJ 50 (2000), pp. 89–91.


Naveh, “Achish-Ikausu in the Light of the Ekron Dedication,” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 310 (1998), pp. 35–36.


James B. Pritchard, ed., Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1969), p. 288.


Gitin, “Neo-Assyrian and Egyptian Hegemony” p. *58 (English section).


Gitin, “The Neo-Assyrian Empire and its Western Periphery,” p. 84.


Gitin, and Amir Golani, “The Tel Miqne-Ekron Silver Hoards: The Assyrian and Phoenician Connections,” in Hacksilber to Coinage: New Insights into the Monetary History of the Near East and Greece, in M.S. Balmuth, ed., Numismatic Studies 24 (New York: American Numismatic Society, 2001), pp. 32–33, 38.


Gitin, “Tel Miqne-Ekron: A Type Site for the Inner Coastal Plain in the Iron II Period,” in Seymour Gitin and William G. Dever, Recent Excavations in Israel: Studies in Iron Age Archaeology, Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research 49 (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1989), p. 40.


Gitin, “The Four-Horned Altar and Sacred Space: An Archaeological Perspective,” in Barry M. Gittlen, ed., Sacred Time, Sacred Space, Archaeology and the Religion of Israel (Winona Lake, IN: Eisensbrauns, 2002), pp. 113–117.


Gitin, “Tel Miqne-Ekron in the 7th Century B.C.E.: The Impact of Economic Innovation and Foreign Cultural Influences on a Neo-Assyrian Vassal City-State,” in Seymour Gitin, ed., Recent Excavations in Israel: A View to the West, Archaeological Institute of America Colloquia and Conference Papers 1 (Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt, 1995), pp. 73–74.


Gitin, “The Philistines in the Prophetic Texts,” p. 276, n. 2.


Bezalel Porten, “The Identity of King Adon,” Biblical Archaeologist 44 (1981), pp 36–52.