Professors J. Andrew Overman and Douglas Edwards teach, respectively, at Macalester College in St. Paul, Minnesota, and at the University of Puget Sound in Tacoma, Washington. The Black Sea Project’s excavations in Chersonesus are financially supported by Macalester College, the University of Puget Sound and several private contributors.


The phrase “The one who has chosen Jerusalem” is based on Zecharaiah 3:2, where it appears in a negative context: “May the Lord who has chosen Jerusalem rebuke you.”


Gary Lindstrom, our field director, who has much experience as an archaeologist in Israel, and Jack Olive, also an experienced field archaeologist and a lecturer at Pacific Lutheran University in Tacoma, Washington, have directed the work on the site.



Strabo, Geography III 7.4.5.


See V.V. Struve, Corpus Inscriptionum Regni Bosporani (Moscow: Academy of Science, 1965; in Russian and Greek), no. 1123.


See Struve, Corpus Inscriptionum, no. 70.


D.I. Danshin, “Jewish Community of Phanagoria,” Vestnik Drevnei Istorii (Journal of Ancient History) I (204) (Moscow, 1993; in Russian), pp. 59–73.


See the discussion of proseuche by Irena Levinskaya, “A Jewish or Gentile Prayer House? The Meaning of PROSEUCHE,” Tyndale Bulletin 41:1 (May 1990), pp. 154–159; Richard E. Oster, “Supposed Anachronism in Luke-Acts’ Use of SYNAGOGE,” New Testament Studies 39 (1993), pp. 178–208; and J. Andrew Overman, “Released to the Proseuche … with the Guardianship of the Synagogue of the Jews,” Philadelphia Society of Christian Origins (Spring 1994).


Herodotus 4.12.


See Ellis Hovell Minns, Scythians and Greeks, Survey of Ancient History and Archaeology on the North Coast of Euxine from the Danube to the Caucasus (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1913), pp. 494, 539.


Minns, Scythians and Greeks, pp. 516–517.


See Basilius Latyschev, Inscriptiones Antiquae Oprae Septentrionalis Ponti Euxini Graecae et Latinae, 1885–1900, vol. 4 (St. Petersburg, 1901), p. 79.


See Minns, Scythians and Greeks, pp. 490, 516, 517, 540, 612, 645.


V.V. Borisova, Report no. 730/2, The Excavations of the Necropolis Near the Pottery Shop in Chersonesus (1956, in Russian), and Report no. 1001, Field Descriptions of the Finds in the Pottery Workshop of Chersonesus (1955–1956, in Russian).


Included in this team was a student fluent in Russian, Kelly Church from Macalester College, who, along with the other translators, was responsible for translating the reports. We also assigned a photographer, Finnley MacDonald, to make photo albums of these reports. Claudia Espinoza served as our architect and Pam Pincher-Wagner as our registrar.


G.D. Belov was the chief archaeologist of the entire site, including the basilicas and the neighborhood around the basilicas, from 1931 to 1961.


The finding and restoration of the fragment are reported by Dr. Shokhin in Report no. 617, The Restoration Journal (1951, in Russian), and by S. F. Strezheletsky in Report no. 1301.I, The Excavations at Chersonesus. Diary of the Excavations (1950, in Russian [handwritten]), with the author’s drawings.


See J.-B. Frey, Corpus Inscriptionum Judaicarum I (Rome: Pontifical Institute of Christian Archaeology, 1936), pp. 173, 327, 652, 723, 25.